Author Topic: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports  (Read 59850 times)

adroth

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Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« on: November 20, 2016, 04:08:54 AM »
Yet another unfortunate consequence of the loss of the Timawa forum was the loss of discussions about potential role that airport radars could play in air defense. In 2006, the PAF and the then-Air Transportation Office (ATO) formed the PAF-ATO Joint Use Committee (PAJUC) to grant Air Defense Command access to the radar data from the ATO primary search radar in Tagaytay. Budgetary constraints of the day meant that the PAF's own radars had become non-operational due to a lack of spare parts.

Since then, the ATO had been renamed as the CAAP. However, this cooperation remains in place in some form, as demonstrated by the air intercept exercise involving two FA-50PHs and President Aquino's PAL flight from the US.

https://youtu.be/IyjHgaffHH4



10 years later, the PAF's fortunes have changed. The Gozar station, for example, is slated for return to operational status. (See here)

That being said, the premise of the original thread remains:

Increasing the number of primary search radars for airports around the country improves our ability to track aircraft in our PADIZ for both civilian air traffic and air defense.

« Last Edit: November 20, 2016, 04:31:48 AM by adroth »

adroth

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #1 on: November 20, 2016, 04:28:53 AM »
From: http://www.airwaysmuseum.com/Surveillance.htm

The first ATC radars used in Australia were wartime air defence units which were used experimentally. These radars were of the type that later became known as 'Primary' radars. That is, they worked on the well-known 'Battle of Britain' principle in which the radar transmitter sends out a pulse of radio energy, of which a very small proportion is reflected from the surface or structure of the target aircraft back to the radar receiver.



The azimuth orientation of the radar antenna provides the bearing of the aircraft from the ground station, and the time taken for the pulse to reach the target and return provides a measure of the distance of the target from the ground station. The bearing and distance of the target can then be converted into a ground position for display to the Air Traffic Controller. Target elevation (altitude) is not normally measured by ATC primary radars.

The advantage of Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is that it operates totally independently of the target aircraft - that is, no action from the aircraft is required for it to provide a radar return.

The disadvantages of PSR are that, firstly, enormous amounts of power must be radiated to ensure returns from the target. This is especially true if long range is desired. Secondly, because of the small amount of energy returned at the receiver, returns may be easily disrupted due to such factors as changes of target attitude or signal attenuation due to heavy rain. This may cause the displayed target to 'fade'. Thirdly, correlation of a particular radar return with a particular aircraft requires an identification process. When PSR was the only type of radar available, this was typically achieved by the Controller instructing an aircraft to turn and observing same on their display, or by correlating a DME distance report by the aircraft with the position of a particular return along a known track.

< Edited >

Secondary Radar

The disadvantages of PSR outlined above led to the employment of another aspect of wartime radar development. This was the Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system, which had been developed as a means of positively identifying friendly aircraft from enemy. The system which became known in civil use as Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR), or in the USA as the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, relies on a piece of equipment aboard the aircraft known as a 'transponder'.

The transponder is a radio receiver and transmitter operating on the radar frequency. The target aircraft's transponder responds to interrogation by the ground station by transmitting a coded reply signal. The great advantages of SSR are three: firstly, because the reply signal is transmitted from the aircraft it is much stronger when received at the ground station, thus giving the possibility of much greater range and reducing the problems of signal attenuation; similarly, the transmitting power required of the ground station for a given range is much reduced, thus providing considerable economy; and thirdly, because the signals in each direction are electronically coded the possibility is offered to transmit additional information between the two stations.

The disadvantage of SSR is that it requires a target aircraft to carry an operating transponder. Thus SSR is a 'dependant' surveillance system. For this reason, PSR will operate in conjunction with SSR in certain areas for the foreseeable future so that 'non-cooperating' targets, such as some light aircraft, can be detected.

SSR has several modes of operation, the basic civil mode being Mode A. In this mode the aircraft's transponder provides positive aircraft identification by transmitting a four-digit code to the ground station. The code system is octal; that is, each of the code digits may be any of the numbers 0-7. There are thus 4096 possible four-digit codes (e.g. 3472).

Another principal SSR mode currently used in Australia is Mode C. In this mode the aircraft's altitude, derived from on-board instruments, is transmitted to the ground station in addition to the identity. The use of Mode C was introduced in Australia in the late 1980s with the acquisition of ground systems, such as ATCARDS, capable of processing the information.

A further mode, Mode S (or 'Mode Select'), is also used. Aircraft equipped with transponders supporting this mode are assigned a permanent identification which can be selectively addressed by the ground radar. This reduces problems of garbling between SSR returns from aircraft in close proximity. Mode S also offers a wider range of data to be transmitted, including potentially an uplink of data from the ground station to the aircraft although this capability is presently not used in Australia.

Additional SSR Modes are used by military aircraft.

Incidentally, the phraseologies associated with the use of SSR link back to the early days of IFF when the equipment was code-named 'Parrot'. Thus an instruction to turn off the IFF eqiupment was to "strangle your parrot" and, conversely, to transmit the identification signal was to "squawk" - a phrase still in use today.

< Edited >

adroth

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #2 on: November 20, 2016, 04:44:00 AM »
CAAP radar in Tagaytay





« Last Edit: July 12, 2019, 12:16:38 PM by adroth »

adroth

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #3 on: November 20, 2016, 09:41:51 AM »
« Last Edit: July 12, 2019, 12:16:51 PM by adroth »

adroth

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #4 on: December 19, 2016, 04:21:16 AM »
Clark International Airport reportedly has the most modern airport radar and navigation system in the country. Anybody here have details?

Are these just landing aids, or are any relevant for PADIZ-related detection?

NEW STATE-OF-THE-ART RADAR AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS AT CLARK AIRPORT

http://www.clarksubicmarketing.com/logistics_supply_chain/clark_airport_dmia_facilities.htm

Spending $9.3 million on a Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) system in 2007 translates to investment in the future of air travel at Clark. Radar of this caliber can track aircraft in a radius pattern from 60 to 220 nautical miles out. With this system in place it elevates Clark Airport to a class with other major airports in Asia and beyond. This system adds significant safety advantages, speeds-up arrivals and departures and generally ensures a greater level of airline pilot confidence. This advanced Radar system answered the needs of, and opens the door to additional major air-carriers stepping-in to establish service at Clark Airport. This radar system brings DMIA into compliance with the Canadian International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards.

In addition to the TRACON system, state-of-the-art electronic communication, radar, navigation, approach-lighting and fire/safety systems have been implemented at the Clark Airport. Facilities such as, Instrument Landing Systems (ILS), Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range Radar, VHF/UHF Transmitters, MET Garden Communications, modern meteorological Equipment, Precision Approach Path Indicator Airfield Ground Lighting System and advanced, Category 9 Crash, Fire and Rescue Equipment enhanced by annual safety practice scenarios practiced.

When CIAC contracts for critical airport equipment and infrastructure they ensure the job is going to be done properly. In the instance of the TRACON radar system mentioned above, one of the largest European telecommunications companies, Sisteme Integrati, was hired as the prime contractor. See some of the photos of the completed installation and President Arroyo going over the technical issues with the contractors below.

miggye

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #5 on: December 19, 2016, 06:57:02 AM »
I am trying to look for the pertinent papers covering the deal, sir A, but from what i do remember from the deal, the radar in Clark was already specified from the start to serve a dual role both as Nav radar, and in a PADIZ role. unfortunately, my father-in-law's records from that year is a mess!
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r3mu511

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #6 on: December 19, 2016, 11:26:17 AM »
@doc, @chiefA -- re. the atc radars in clark, I recall this was discussed a bit in the old forum and iirc @doc mentioned either atcr33 (s-band atc psr) or atcr44 (l-band atc psr), I don't quite remember which one of the two was mentioned in the old forum...

the financial statements of clark airport as well as news articles about the project also point to Selex (now Leonardo) as the supplier:

http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2009.pdf

http://www.philstar.com/nation/312240/clark-airport-have-94-m-radar

http://www.portcalls.com/clark-set-to-inaugurate-10m-radars

given the ranges cited in the news articles at 220 nm and comparing to the product catalogs, I'ld guess it's the atcr44 (since the -33 is rated at 100 nm whereas the -44 is rated at 220 nm, while otoh their SSR product SIR-S is rated at 256 nm)...

adroth

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #7 on: December 19, 2016, 12:33:18 PM »
Nice guys. IIRC, a foreign news report cited an atcr33. But the specs don't line up, they could have upgraded the system.

Given that the NAIA radar system is kilometers away from the airport, it'll be interesting to see where Clark's system is

r3mu511

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #8 on: December 19, 2016, 02:48:41 PM »
^fwiw @chief, in the old 2007 selex atcr33 catalog they did offer 3 power transmitter configurations, ranging from 8 to 32 modules with corresponding transmit power ranges of 9.5 to 35 kW... though a change in range from 100 nm to 220 nm would require something on the order of a 23x increase in transmit power (from the 4th root relationship of peak power to range) if that was the only change being done... but fwiw the old catalog at least does show upgrades of various types are/were available...

---

as to the location, since this was a project completed back in 2007 I suppose google maps imagery is updated... so this could be the location of the radome (well at least it appears to be the only large radome I could see in google maps around the clark airport area):

https://www.google.com/maps/@15.180777,120.564369,400m/data=!3m1!1e3

from the map it appears that particular large radome is around a little over 2 km from the main building complex...

SG99n1

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #9 on: December 19, 2016, 09:52:54 PM »
http://cnnphilippines.com/videos/2016/03/08/CAAP-upgrades-radar-system.html
http://www.rappler.com/business/industries/aviation-tourism/81473-naia-air-traffic-system-upgrade

MANILA, Philippines – The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP) has completed a P159.9-million ($3.59-million) air traffic management system upgrade, replacing the old Eurocat system implemented in 1996 at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).

The upgrade is needed to ensure stable and efficient traffic over Philippine airspace until the NAIA completely transitions to the P13-billion ($292.13 million), next-generation satellite-based Communications, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) project.

The system is a computerized air traffic control and management solution. It controls en route, over flights, arriving, and departing air traffic within a range of 250 nautical miles.

Thales Australia and Pacific Hemisphere were the partners for the project.
« Last Edit: December 19, 2016, 09:54:48 PM by SG99n1 »
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SG99n1

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #10 on: December 19, 2016, 10:14:54 PM »
http://www.philstar.com/business/393085/clark-switch-93-m-advanced-radar-system

...He said the all-weather radar system can detect incoming and outgoing aircraft within a radius of 60 to 220 nautical miles and will operate 24 hours daily.

...The airport’s primary radar will be able to detect aircraft within a radius of 60 nautical miles and 27,000 feet up in the air. The secondary radar is capable of indicating speed and position of aircraft within 220 nautical miles and 35,000 feet up in the air, higher than the height usually flown by long-haul airliners at 33,000 feet....

...With the installation of the radar system by the Italian firm Sisteme Integrati, DMIA will no longer be dependent on the radar system of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).


Selex, one of the biggest telecommunications company in Europe, handled the construction of the radar site and all the technological system necessary for its operation.


The same radar system had been installed by the company in airports in Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka, South America and in Italy. ..
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SG99n1

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #11 on: December 19, 2016, 11:00:45 PM »
http://thestandard.com.ph/news/-provinces/224125/clark-airport-gets-caap-safety-nod.html


Celebrating Clark International Airport’s safety certification in front of Clark’s radar tower are (from left) CAAP deputy directors general Capt. Manuel Antonio Tamayo and Capt. Jim Sydiongco, Clark International Airport president CEO Alex Cauguiran, Transportation Secretary Art Tugade, Transportation Undersecretary for Aviation Atty. Roberto Lim, and Philippine Airlines president Jaime Bautista (second from right). Eric B. Apolonio
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SG99n1

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #12 on: December 19, 2016, 11:04:04 PM »
http://caap.gov.ph/index.php/dotr-secretary-tugade-joins-caap-international-civil-aviation-day

Meanwhile, DOTr secretary Art Tugade together with Usec for Aviation Atty. Roberto Lim, Caap Director General Capt. Jim Sydiongco, CAAP deputy director general for operations Capt. Manuel Antonio Tamayo, MIAA General Manager Ed Monreal, Pal President Jimmy Bautista and other aviation stake holders was given a tour of the soon-to-be-completed P9.9 billion state-of-the-art Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Air Traffic Management (CNS-ATM) facilities at the CAAP compound.
 
The CNS/ATM technology package includes a computer-based flight data processing system that will enable aircraft operators to meet their planned times of departure and arrival and adhere to their preferred flight profiles with minimum constraints and without compromising agreed levels of safety.
 
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 22,049 million yen project is expected to complete the physical installation of all associated facilities by May 21, 2017.

Package 1 of the CNS/ATM project was awarded to a joint venture of Japan's Sumitomo Corporation and Thales Australia Ltd (formerly Thomson-CSF). The package involved the installation of the latest Eurocat system with an integrated Digital Voice Control System, Aeronautical Information System, Automated Message Handling System, Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Router, Global Navigation Satellite System monitoring and metrological systems.

The project's Package 2 includes the installation of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Ground Station, En-route Radar (Secondary Surveillance Radar Mode-S), Terminal Radar (Airport Surveillance Radar/Secondary Surveillance Radar), VHF Terminal and Remote Control Air-Ground Communications facility, Microwave link and Very Small Aperture Terminal.
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r3mu511

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #13 on: December 20, 2016, 12:51:15 AM »
(re. the clark airport radars)

from one of the news articles posted by @SG99n1 above (emphasis mine):

http://www.philstar.com/business/393085/clark-switch-93-m-advanced-radar-system

Quote
The airport's primary radar will be able to detect aircraft within a radius of 60 nautical miles and 27,000 feet up in the air. The secondary radar is capable of indicating speed and position of aircraft within 220 nautical miles and 35,000 feet up

well that bit from the article adds a fly in the ointment...

all this time the ranges cited in the other news articles were assumed to apply to the primary search radar, but this article specifically gives a range of 60 nm for the primary set (ie. ATCR33 or 44, the set which detects 'non-cooperative' targets via direct reflection of RF energy from the target 'skin', without needing the target to have a transponder beacon)... this 60 nm rating is a possibility because in the 2007 atcr33 catalog, the lowest configuration is for a 60 nm range which is described in the catalog as "for typical approach surveillance configuration"...

the news article then specifies that the secondary set (ie. the SIR-S, the set which transmits an interrogation signal to an aircraft and receives a corresponding transponder beacon reply from the aircraft, hence a 'cooperative' target) is the one rated for 220 nm...

if the reporter for the article is correct then it might turn out that clark airport had the lowest configuration of the atcr33 installed back in 2007... which would mean that in terms of air defense purposes it's only capable of 60 nm surveillance when it comes to non-cooperative targets...

then again this is a 9 year old news article so upgrades might already have been put into place...

SG99n1

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Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
« Reply #14 on: December 20, 2016, 08:58:26 AM »
if the reporter for the article is correct then it might turn out that clark airport had the lowest configuration of the atcr33 installed back in 2007... which would mean that in terms of air defense purposes it's only capable of 60 nm surveillance when it comes to non-cooperative targets...

then again this is a 9 year old news article so upgrades might already have been put into place...

Hi r3, the radar coverage is confirmed by this
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2008.pdf
page 43

no upgrades have been mentioned in their milestones
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2011.pdf
page 7

radar coverage is still the same
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2014.pdf
page 25
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