Defense of the Republic of the Philippines

Miscellaneous and non-defense topics => Airports and Civil Aviation => Topic started by: adroth on November 20, 2016, 04:08:54 AM

Title: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on November 20, 2016, 04:08:54 AM
Yet another unfortunate consequence of the loss of the Timawa forum was the loss of discussions about potential role that airport radars could play in air defense. In 2006, the PAF and the then-Air Transportation Office (ATO) formed the PAF-ATO Joint Use Committee (PAJUC) to grant Air Defense Command access to the radar data from the ATO primary search radar in Tagaytay. Budgetary constraints of the day meant that the PAF's own radars had become non-operational due to a lack of spare parts.

Since then, the ATO had been renamed as the CAAP. However, this cooperation remains in place in some form, as demonstrated by the air intercept exercise involving two FA-50PHs and President Aquino's PAL flight from the US.

https://youtu.be/IyjHgaffHH4

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/12742803_10208335394483440_3651322687234547765_n.jpg)

10 years later, the PAF's fortunes have changed. The Gozar station, for example, is slated for return to operational status. (See here (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=709.0))

That being said, the premise of the original thread remains:

Increasing the number of primary search radars for airports around the country improves our ability to track aircraft in our PADIZ for both civilian air traffic and air defense.

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/airportsMap.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on November 20, 2016, 04:28:53 AM
From: http://www.airwaysmuseum.com/Surveillance.htm

The first ATC radars used in Australia were wartime air defence units which were used experimentally. These radars were of the type that later became known as 'Primary' radars. That is, they worked on the well-known 'Battle of Britain' principle in which the radar transmitter sends out a pulse of radio energy, of which a very small proportion is reflected from the surface or structure of the target aircraft back to the radar receiver.

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Radaroperation.gif)

The azimuth orientation of the radar antenna provides the bearing of the aircraft from the ground station, and the time taken for the pulse to reach the target and return provides a measure of the distance of the target from the ground station. The bearing and distance of the target can then be converted into a ground position for display to the Air Traffic Controller. Target elevation (altitude) is not normally measured by ATC primary radars.

The advantage of Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) is that it operates totally independently of the target aircraft - that is, no action from the aircraft is required for it to provide a radar return.

The disadvantages of PSR are that, firstly, enormous amounts of power must be radiated to ensure returns from the target. This is especially true if long range is desired. Secondly, because of the small amount of energy returned at the receiver, returns may be easily disrupted due to such factors as changes of target attitude or signal attenuation due to heavy rain. This may cause the displayed target to 'fade'. Thirdly, correlation of a particular radar return with a particular aircraft requires an identification process. When PSR was the only type of radar available, this was typically achieved by the Controller instructing an aircraft to turn and observing same on their display, or by correlating a DME distance report by the aircraft with the position of a particular return along a known track.

< Edited >

Secondary Radar

The disadvantages of PSR outlined above led to the employment of another aspect of wartime radar development. This was the Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system, which had been developed as a means of positively identifying friendly aircraft from enemy. The system which became known in civil use as Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR), or in the USA as the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, relies on a piece of equipment aboard the aircraft known as a 'transponder'.

The transponder is a radio receiver and transmitter operating on the radar frequency. The target aircraft's transponder responds to interrogation by the ground station by transmitting a coded reply signal. The great advantages of SSR are three: firstly, because the reply signal is transmitted from the aircraft it is much stronger when received at the ground station, thus giving the possibility of much greater range and reducing the problems of signal attenuation; similarly, the transmitting power required of the ground station for a given range is much reduced, thus providing considerable economy; and thirdly, because the signals in each direction are electronically coded the possibility is offered to transmit additional information between the two stations.

The disadvantage of SSR is that it requires a target aircraft to carry an operating transponder. Thus SSR is a 'dependant' surveillance system. For this reason, PSR will operate in conjunction with SSR in certain areas for the foreseeable future so that 'non-cooperating' targets, such as some light aircraft, can be detected.

SSR has several modes of operation, the basic civil mode being Mode A. In this mode the aircraft's transponder provides positive aircraft identification by transmitting a four-digit code to the ground station. The code system is octal; that is, each of the code digits may be any of the numbers 0-7. There are thus 4096 possible four-digit codes (e.g. 3472).

Another principal SSR mode currently used in Australia is Mode C. In this mode the aircraft's altitude, derived from on-board instruments, is transmitted to the ground station in addition to the identity. The use of Mode C was introduced in Australia in the late 1980s with the acquisition of ground systems, such as ATCARDS, capable of processing the information.

A further mode, Mode S (or 'Mode Select'), is also used. Aircraft equipped with transponders supporting this mode are assigned a permanent identification which can be selectively addressed by the ground radar. This reduces problems of garbling between SSR returns from aircraft in close proximity. Mode S also offers a wider range of data to be transmitted, including potentially an uplink of data from the ground station to the aircraft although this capability is presently not used in Australia.

Additional SSR Modes are used by military aircraft.

Incidentally, the phraseologies associated with the use of SSR link back to the early days of IFF when the equipment was code-named 'Parrot'. Thus an instruction to turn off the IFF eqiupment was to "strangle your parrot" and, conversely, to transmit the identification signal was to "squawk" - a phrase still in use today.

< Edited >
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on November 20, 2016, 04:44:00 AM
CAAP radar in Tagaytay

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/3-1.jpg)

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2-1.jpg)

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/1-1.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on November 20, 2016, 09:41:51 AM
(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/4-1.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 19, 2016, 04:21:16 AM
Clark International Airport reportedly has the most modern airport radar and navigation system in the country. Anybody here have details?

Are these just landing aids, or are any relevant for PADIZ-related detection?

NEW STATE-OF-THE-ART RADAR AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS AT CLARK AIRPORT

http://www.clarksubicmarketing.com/logistics_supply_chain/clark_airport_dmia_facilities.htm

Spending $9.3 million on a Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) system in 2007 translates to investment in the future of air travel at Clark. Radar of this caliber can track aircraft in a radius pattern from 60 to 220 nautical miles out. With this system in place it elevates Clark Airport to a class with other major airports in Asia and beyond. This system adds significant safety advantages, speeds-up arrivals and departures and generally ensures a greater level of airline pilot confidence. This advanced Radar system answered the needs of, and opens the door to additional major air-carriers stepping-in to establish service at Clark Airport. This radar system brings DMIA into compliance with the Canadian International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards.

In addition to the TRACON system, state-of-the-art electronic communication, radar, navigation, approach-lighting and fire/safety systems have been implemented at the Clark Airport. Facilities such as, Instrument Landing Systems (ILS), Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range Radar, VHF/UHF Transmitters, MET Garden Communications, modern meteorological Equipment, Precision Approach Path Indicator Airfield Ground Lighting System and advanced, Category 9 Crash, Fire and Rescue Equipment enhanced by annual safety practice scenarios practiced.

When CIAC contracts for critical airport equipment and infrastructure they ensure the job is going to be done properly. In the instance of the TRACON radar system mentioned above, one of the largest European telecommunications companies, Sisteme Integrati, was hired as the prime contractor. See some of the photos of the completed installation and President Arroyo going over the technical issues with the contractors below.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: miggye on December 19, 2016, 06:57:02 AM
I am trying to look for the pertinent papers covering the deal, sir A, but from what i do remember from the deal, the radar in Clark was already specified from the start to serve a dual role both as Nav radar, and in a PADIZ role. unfortunately, my father-in-law's records from that year is a mess!
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 19, 2016, 11:26:17 AM
@doc, @chiefA -- re. the atc radars in clark, I recall this was discussed a bit in the old forum and iirc @doc mentioned either atcr33 (s-band atc psr) or atcr44 (l-band atc psr), I don't quite remember which one of the two was mentioned in the old forum...

the financial statements of clark airport as well as news articles about the project also point to Selex (now Leonardo) as the supplier:

http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2009.pdf (http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2009.pdf)

http://www.philstar.com/nation/312240/clark-airport-have-94-m-radar (http://www.philstar.com/nation/312240/clark-airport-have-94-m-radar)

http://www.portcalls.com/clark-set-to-inaugurate-10m-radars (http://www.portcalls.com/clark-set-to-inaugurate-10m-radars)

given the ranges cited in the news articles at 220 nm and comparing to the product catalogs, I'ld guess it's the atcr44 (since the -33 is rated at 100 nm whereas the -44 is rated at 220 nm, while otoh their SSR product SIR-S is rated at 256 nm)...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 19, 2016, 12:33:18 PM
Nice guys. IIRC, a foreign news report cited an atcr33. But the specs don't line up, they could have upgraded the system.

Given that the NAIA radar system is kilometers away from the airport, it'll be interesting to see where Clark's system is
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 19, 2016, 02:48:41 PM
^fwiw @chief, in the old 2007 selex atcr33 catalog they did offer 3 power transmitter configurations, ranging from 8 to 32 modules with corresponding transmit power ranges of 9.5 to 35 kW... though a change in range from 100 nm to 220 nm would require something on the order of a 23x increase in transmit power (from the 4th root relationship of peak power to range) if that was the only change being done... but fwiw the old catalog at least does show upgrades of various types are/were available...

---

as to the location, since this was a project completed back in 2007 I suppose google maps imagery is updated... so this could be the location of the radome (well at least it appears to be the only large radome I could see in google maps around the clark airport area):

https://www.google.com/maps/@15.180777,120.564369,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@15.180777,120.564369,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

from the map it appears that particular large radome is around a little over 2 km from the main building complex...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on December 19, 2016, 09:52:54 PM
http://cnnphilippines.com/videos/2016/03/08/CAAP-upgrades-radar-system.html
http://www.rappler.com/business/industries/aviation-tourism/81473-naia-air-traffic-system-upgrade

MANILA, Philippines – The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP) has completed a P159.9-million ($3.59-million) air traffic management system upgrade, replacing the old Eurocat system implemented in 1996 at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).

The upgrade is needed to ensure stable and efficient traffic over Philippine airspace until the NAIA completely transitions to the P13-billion ($292.13 million), next-generation satellite-based Communications, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) project.

The system is a computerized air traffic control and management solution. It controls en route, over flights, arriving, and departing air traffic within a range of 250 nautical miles.

Thales Australia and Pacific Hemisphere were the partners for the project.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on December 19, 2016, 10:14:54 PM
http://www.philstar.com/business/393085/clark-switch-93-m-advanced-radar-system

...He said the all-weather radar system can detect incoming and outgoing aircraft within a radius of 60 to 220 nautical miles and will operate 24 hours daily.

...The airport’s primary radar will be able to detect aircraft within a radius of 60 nautical miles and 27,000 feet up in the air. The secondary radar is capable of indicating speed and position of aircraft within 220 nautical miles and 35,000 feet up in the air, higher than the height usually flown by long-haul airliners at 33,000 feet....

...With the installation of the radar system by the Italian firm Sisteme Integrati, DMIA will no longer be dependent on the radar system of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).


Selex, one of the biggest telecommunications company in Europe, handled the construction of the radar site and all the technological system necessary for its operation.


The same radar system had been installed by the company in airports in Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka, South America and in Italy. ..
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on December 19, 2016, 11:00:45 PM
http://thestandard.com.ph/news/-provinces/224125/clark-airport-gets-caap-safety-nod.html

(http://thestandard.com.ph/panel/_files/image/article/2016/December/15/20161215_prov2.jpg)
Celebrating Clark International Airport’s safety certification in front of Clark’s radar tower are (from left) CAAP deputy directors general Capt. Manuel Antonio Tamayo and Capt. Jim Sydiongco, Clark International Airport president CEO Alex Cauguiran, Transportation Secretary Art Tugade, Transportation Undersecretary for Aviation Atty. Roberto Lim, and Philippine Airlines president Jaime Bautista (second from right). Eric B. Apolonio
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on December 19, 2016, 11:04:04 PM
http://caap.gov.ph/index.php/dotr-secretary-tugade-joins-caap-international-civil-aviation-day

Meanwhile, DOTr secretary Art Tugade together with Usec for Aviation Atty. Roberto Lim, Caap Director General Capt. Jim Sydiongco, CAAP deputy director general for operations Capt. Manuel Antonio Tamayo, MIAA General Manager Ed Monreal, Pal President Jimmy Bautista and other aviation stake holders was given a tour of the soon-to-be-completed P9.9 billion state-of-the-art Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Air Traffic Management (CNS-ATM) facilities at the CAAP compound.
 
The CNS/ATM technology package includes a computer-based flight data processing system that will enable aircraft operators to meet their planned times of departure and arrival and adhere to their preferred flight profiles with minimum constraints and without compromising agreed levels of safety.
 
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 22,049 million yen project is expected to complete the physical installation of all associated facilities by May 21, 2017.

Package 1 of the CNS/ATM project was awarded to a joint venture of Japan's Sumitomo Corporation and Thales Australia Ltd (formerly Thomson-CSF). The package involved the installation of the latest Eurocat system with an integrated Digital Voice Control System, Aeronautical Information System, Automated Message Handling System, Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Router, Global Navigation Satellite System monitoring and metrological systems.

The project's Package 2 includes the installation of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Ground Station, En-route Radar (Secondary Surveillance Radar Mode-S), Terminal Radar (Airport Surveillance Radar/Secondary Surveillance Radar), VHF Terminal and Remote Control Air-Ground Communications facility, Microwave link and Very Small Aperture Terminal.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 20, 2016, 12:51:15 AM
(re. the clark airport radars)

from one of the news articles posted by @SG99n1 above (emphasis mine):

http://www.philstar.com/business/393085/clark-switch-93-m-advanced-radar-system (http://www.philstar.com/business/393085/clark-switch-93-m-advanced-radar-system)

Quote
The airport's primary radar will be able to detect aircraft within a radius of 60 nautical miles and 27,000 feet up in the air. The secondary radar is capable of indicating speed and position of aircraft within 220 nautical miles and 35,000 feet up

well that bit from the article adds a fly in the ointment...

all this time the ranges cited in the other news articles were assumed to apply to the primary search radar, but this article specifically gives a range of 60 nm for the primary set (ie. ATCR33 or 44, the set which detects 'non-cooperative' targets via direct reflection of RF energy from the target 'skin', without needing the target to have a transponder beacon)... this 60 nm rating is a possibility because in the 2007 atcr33 catalog, the lowest configuration is for a 60 nm range which is described in the catalog as "for typical approach surveillance configuration"...

the news article then specifies that the secondary set (ie. the SIR-S, the set which transmits an interrogation signal to an aircraft and receives a corresponding transponder beacon reply from the aircraft, hence a 'cooperative' target) is the one rated for 220 nm...

if the reporter for the article is correct then it might turn out that clark airport had the lowest configuration of the atcr33 installed back in 2007... which would mean that in terms of air defense purposes it's only capable of 60 nm surveillance when it comes to non-cooperative targets...

then again this is a 9 year old news article so upgrades might already have been put into place...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on December 20, 2016, 08:58:26 AM
if the reporter for the article is correct then it might turn out that clark airport had the lowest configuration of the atcr33 installed back in 2007... which would mean that in terms of air defense purposes it's only capable of 60 nm surveillance when it comes to non-cooperative targets...

then again this is a 9 year old news article so upgrades might already have been put into place...

Hi r3, the radar coverage is confirmed by this
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2008.pdf
page 43

no upgrades have been mentioned in their milestones
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2011.pdf
page 7

radar coverage is still the same
http://crk.clarkairport.com/downloads/annual-report/annual-report-2014.pdf
page 25
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 20, 2016, 10:19:58 AM
^thanks @SG :D exactly the info needed...

from the pdfs you linked and with the understanding that by 'primary radar' is meant the non-cooperative-target (PSR) ATCR set, and by 'secondary radar' is meant the cooperative/transponder-target (SSR) SIR-S set, this info would indeed confirm that clark got the lowest configuration (ie. 60 nm) atcr33 as PSR with a SIR-S as SSR...

---

also of interest to note is that in the 2008 annual report pdf link you posted, the front image shows the SIR-S SSR (cooperative/transponder set, the rectangular grid frame antenna) on the tower without radome (and in the background one can see a second tower but with nothing yet mounted at the top)... if one zooms in on the pic one can actually see the upper shape of the ATCR33 (non-cooperative set, spoiled parabolic mesh antenna) right underneath the SIR-S in the usual PSR-below-SSR-above mounting pattern one sees in selex catalogs...

while in the 2011 annual report pdf, the front cover now shows the radar tower with a radome (ie. as it appears in the google maps link in an earlier post)...

here's a pic on the net (googling for "clark airport radar") showing a better view of the PSR-below-SSR-above mounting for the ATCR33 plus SIR-S combo without the radome:

(https://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/11867236.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 20, 2016, 11:11:41 AM
here's a pic on the net (googling for "clark airport radar") showing a better view of the PSR-below-SSR-above mounting for the ATCR33 plus SIR-S combo without the radome:

(https://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/11867236.jpg)

Looks different from the earlier post with a photo of Clark management.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 20, 2016, 12:03:26 PM
^you mean this one @chief:

(http://thestandard.com.ph/panel/_files/image/article/2016/December/15/20161215_prov2.jpg)

selex doesn't have a 2D air traffic surveillance radar which uses a parabolic dish antenna because for 2D air surveillance you want a beam lobe structure which is wide in the vertical axis and narrow in the horizontal axis so that with each rotation it sweeps a tall but narrow arc as it turns...

a parabolic dish like in the picture would have a beam shape which is narrow in both dimensions thus giving a pencil beam which is good for 3D target ranging/tracking (since you want to fix the target in azimuth and elevation), weather doppler radar (since you want a very small weather cell in order to get a high resolution over the entire volume being scanned for weather phenomena), satellite comms (since you want a tight, highly-directional beam aimed at the satellite)...

the following clark web article has this entry (note the VHF frequency band, in contrast to the S-band ATCR33 for air traffic surveillance):

http://www.clarksubicmarketing.com/logistics_supply_chain/clark_airport_dmia_facilities.htm (http://www.clarksubicmarketing.com/logistics_supply_chain/clark_airport_dmia_facilities.htm)

Quote
Doppler Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range Radar

I'm not sure if the term "omni-directional" was incorrectly used to refer to the ability to direct the beam to an arbitrary direction, or if it's used in the normal sense meaning the RF signal propagates in all directions at once... if it's the former then they might be describing the dish antenna, if the latter then this is not the dish antenna in which case the dish in the pic might be a terminal doppler weather radar (something airports use to monitor weather directly around them)... or the web article could be referring to a VOR (vhf omni-directional radio ranging system) and has nothing to do with the dish in the pic...

whichever the case (ranging radar, weather doppler, or satellite comms), this dish would be a different system from the primary+secondary air surveillance radars inside the radome as shown in the pictures in the annual report pdfs as well as in the previous post's pic...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 20, 2016, 04:32:08 PM
^you mean this one @chief:

(http://thestandard.com.ph/panel/_files/image/article/2016/December/15/20161215_prov2.jpg)

selex doesn't have a 2D air traffic surveillance radar which uses a parabolic dish antenna because for 2D air surveillance you want a beam lobe structure which is wide in the vertical axis and narrow in the horizontal axis so that with each rotation it sweeps a tall but narrow arc as it turns...

Assuming the caption were correct, I figured that the tower behind the dish is what would have the radar. Sadly, it's not in view
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 20, 2016, 06:43:16 PM
@chief -- ^ah, you mean another PSR set different from what is shown in the pics in the clark annual report pdfs... I suppose that's a possibility as well...

from what can be seen in the annual reports, the pics of the atr33/sir-s combo and it's radome tower appear to match up with the surroundings as seen in the previous pic with the elevated view as well as with what can be seen in the google map link posted previously... so far the pics in the annual reports and google map don't appear to match the management group pic with a two-story building behind the tower...

then again the annual report pics and google map could be quite outdated, so perhaps there is indeed another PSR different from the atcr33/sir-s seen in the annual reports...

so.... who here goes through clark airport a lot? and how many radomes do you see? ;D
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 20, 2016, 11:09:46 PM
Mr R

here's a pic on the net (googling for "clark airport radar") showing a better view of the PSR-below-SSR-above mounting for the ATCR33 plus SIR-S combo without the radome:

(https://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/11867236.jpg)

Looks like I found your photo above. The roads in the pic seem to match. But this time, it has a radome

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/clark.jpg)

Lines up with SG99n1's contribution

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/clark3.jpg)

Found a Flickr photo with a communications tower at Clark. That, methinks, is what Clark management folks were standing in front of. Having a dish that close to a radar didn't really make sense. But in front of a comms tower . . .
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 20, 2016, 11:21:09 PM
^yup @chief, in the first page of this thread I put up a post (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2403#msg2403) with a link to a google maps url with longitude/latitude coords which brings you right to that google map image... you might not have noticed the google maps url I put in that post :D

in the clark annual reports links in the previous posts by @SG, the pdfs also mention about the acquisition of the radome, and you can see in the pics in the annual reports how it went from without a radome to having a radome...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 20, 2016, 11:31:15 PM
Roger that. Missed it.  :D
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on December 31, 2016, 03:25:51 PM
@chief, it seems that photo of the management in front of the sat dish and comms tower was taken at the CAAP air traffic management center and not in clark airport... in the news article link (provided earlier by @SG):

http://thestandard.com.ph/news/-provinces/224125/clark-airport-gets-caap-safety-nod.html (http://thestandard.com.ph/news/-provinces/224125/clark-airport-gets-caap-safety-nod.html)

the occasion is the awarding of the safety rating for clark and the news article states that the awarding ceremony was done at CAAP...

you can also see the same sat dish and comms tower (as well as the building behind it and the concrete dividers/sidewalks) in this cnn phils video (dated from march 2016) featuring the ATC center of CAAP (video link posted earlier by @SG):

http://cnnphilippines.com/videos/2016/03/08/CAAP-upgrades-radar-system.html (http://cnnphilippines.com/videos/2016/03/08/CAAP-upgrades-radar-system.html)

on google maps you can also see where the management photo was taken at the CAAP facility:

https://www.google.com/maps/@14.512939,121.00684,102m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@14.512939,121.00684,102m/data=!3m1!1e3)

it seems that the only difference is that by the time the management picture was taken (in the december 2016 news article) for that safety awarding event, the comms tower legs had been painted with a red/white color scheme...

so maybe the "thestandard.com.ph" news article just got the picture caption wrong by labeling it as "in front of clark"...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 08, 2017, 10:42:35 PM
a couple of historical procurements of civilian air traffic control (ATC) radars (emphasis mine):

http://www.academia.edu/4688978/ATC_Global_Hub_-The_Market_for_Civil_Surveillance_Radars_Market_Dynamics_Changing_THE_MARKET_FOR_CIVIL_ATC_SURVEILLANCE_RADARS_MARKET_DYNAMICS_CHANGING (http://www.academia.edu/4688978/ATC_Global_Hub_-The_Market_for_Civil_Surveillance_Radars_Market_Dynamics_Changing_THE_MARKET_FOR_CIVIL_ATC_SURVEILLANCE_RADARS_MARKET_DYNAMICS_CHANGING)

Quote
Table three: civil ATC surveillance radar market 2010

The Philippines’ Department of Transportation andCommunications (DOTC) selected the Sumitomo/Thales JointVenture for the nationwide modernization of the Philippines’communication, navigation, surveillance and air trafficmanagement facilities and systems. Thales will provide five co-mounted STAR 2000 and RSM 970 S radars as well as five stand-alone RSM 970 S radars. These radars will be provided together with the TopSky – ATC system

these radars ordered in 2010 consisted of 5 sets of primary surveillance radar (PSR) which detect aircraft by direct reflection of emitted RF energy from the target (ie. "skin paint" or "skin reflection") co-mounted with secondary surveillance radar (SSR) which detect aircraft by receiving a transponder reply from the aircraft in response to an interrogation transmission:

Thales STAR-2000 PSR (spoiled-parabolic antenna below) with co-mounted RSM-970-S SSR (rectangular dipole array antenna above):

(http://www.atc-network.com/Upload/News/34754/Thales_STAR2000_RSM%20970%20S%20radars.jpg)

STAR-2000 range depends on transmitter power configuration and can be 60, 80, or 100 nm (note that this range is applicable to non-cooperative targets, ie. no transponder/beacon in the aircraft, hence can be used to detect unknown/opfor targets):

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf)

one of these PSR+SSR combo sets can be found in Manila Airport (NAIA), and one can be found in Mactan-Cebu Airport (more on these airport radar sites in a followup post)...

---

aside from the 5 sets of co-mounted PSR+SSR systems, 5 stand-alone RSM-970-S SSR sets were also acquired:

(http://www.ctuc.com.cn/en/admin/tp/rsm970s.jpg)

RSM-970-S range is up to 256 nm (note that this range is on aircrafts which are replying via transponder/beacon, ie. cooperative targets, thus this range is not usable for unknown/opfor targets):

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf)

of these stand-alone SSRs sets, one can be found in Davao airport and one in Bacolod airport (more on these airport radar sites in a followup post)...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 08, 2017, 10:58:24 PM
another historical civilian ATC procurement from the same source as the previous post (emphasis mine):

http://www.academia.edu/4688978/ATC_Global_Hub_-The_Market_for_Civil_Surveillance_Radars_Market_Dynamics_Changing_THE_MARKET_FOR_CIVIL_ATC_SURVEILLANCE_RADARS_MARKET_DYNAMICS_CHANGING (http://www.academia.edu/4688978/ATC_Global_Hub_-The_Market_for_Civil_Surveillance_Radars_Market_Dynamics_Changing_THE_MARKET_FOR_CIVIL_ATC_SURVEILLANCE_RADARS_MARKET_DYNAMICS_CHANGING)

Quote
Table five: civil ATC surveillance radar market 2008

EADS Defence & Security has secured its first overseas civil contract for it's MSSR 2000 I secondary surveillance radar developed to meet both military and civil MSSR requirements. The Philippine Air Transportation Office (ATO) contracted EADS and local partner Intergrated Energy Systems & Resources (IESRI) to install the radar by mid-2008.

EADS MSSR-2000-I SSR (range: ~250 nm):

(https://www.shephardmedia.com/media/images/article/8845f68f.jpg)

note that this is a cooperative-target radar which relies on a transponder/beacon reply from the aircraft in response to an interrogation transmission in order to detect the aircraft, thus it is not usable against unknown/opfor targets...

news announcement from EADS on this procurement:

http://www.airbusgroup.com/int/en/news-media/press-releases/Airbus-Group/Financial_Communication/2009/03/20090317_eads_defence_de_new_generation_air_traffic_control.html (http://www.airbusgroup.com/int/en/news-media/press-releases/Airbus-Group/Financial_Communication/2009/03/20090317_eads_defence_de_new_generation_air_traffic_control.html)

Quote
EADS Defence & Security (DS) has established the most advanced secondary radar system for air traffic control (ATC) purposes in the Philippines. The Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar MSSR 2000 I delivered by Integrated Energy Systems & Resources Inc (IESRI) and Defence Electronics, an integrated business unit of DS, has been officially accepted by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP).

an MSSR-2000-I set like this was installed in the Tagaytay radar site on the taller tower - see pics on first page of the thread...

(more on the Tagaytay site as well as the shorter tower and it's radome in a followup post)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 09, 2017, 12:06:11 AM
in relation to the procurements posted above, the following news article indicates the status of the ATC radars prior to the 2010 Thales orders (emphasis mine):

http://www.philstar.com/metro/571204/caap-installs-new-radar (http://www.philstar.com/metro/571204/caap-installs-new-radar)

Quote
CAAP installs new radar
By Rudy Santos  | Updated May 2, 2010 - 12:00am

MANILA, Philippines - A new P300-million radar covering the entire air space of the Philippines has been installed at the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines to replace an old system.

CAAP Director General Alfonso Cusi said the ALS 2000 would give air traffic controllers one million square miles of airspace to track down aircraft, compared with the old system’s limited radius of 250 nautical miles.

It will be integrated with four existing ground radar and 10 very high frequency radio equipment spread throughout Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, he added.

these 4 airport primary (PSR) equipped radar sites would be the Manila (NAIA) airport (Toshiba and NEC radars prior to addition of 2010 ordered Thales radar), Clark airport (Selex radar from 2007), Mactan-Cebu airport (NEC radar prior to addition of 2010 ordered Thales radar), and Subic airport (ASR-9 radar)...

since these are primary (PSR) equipped airport approach radar sites, they do not rely on aircraft transponders/beacons and thus will be able to detect non-cooperative, unknown/opfor targets, though their detection ranges will likely be in the usual 60-100 nm ranges (depending on power configuration) typical of airport approach radars... these sets do have co-mounted SSR on them, but in regards to detection of unknown/opfor targets the PSR is what matters...

(more on these four airport radar sites in individual followup posts)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 09, 2017, 12:13:31 AM
(additional pre-2010 Thales procurement order information)

in contrast to the primary (PSR) radar sites (in the previous post) which serve as airport approach radars, there are also 3 secondary (SSR) radar sites which serve as en-route control radars: the previously mentioned Tagaytay site, a Majic Cebu site, and the Laoag airport site:

http://www.philstar.com/metro/505586/civil-aviation-authority-construct-manila-control-center (http://www.philstar.com/metro/505586/civil-aviation-authority-construct-manila-control-center)

Quote
Civil Aviation Authority to construct Manila control center
 Updated September 17, 2009 - 12:00am

Ciron and the new radar console display would be able to receive signals from three long-range radars located in Laoag, Tagaytay and Cebu and process the inputs in Manila for a country-wide radar coverage of all incoming and outgoing flights within the Flight Information Region.

(note that the Majic Cebu site is different from the Mactan-Cebu airport site)

again these 3 sites are secondary SSR radars and thus work on cooperative-targets, ie. aircraft which have a transponder/beacon to reply to interrogation transmissions, thus they will not detect unknown/opfor targets... they do however have ranges on the order of ~250 nm for cooperative/transponder-equipped aircraft...

idealized coverage of these 3 SSR sites with respect to the Flight Information Region (FIR) handled by Manila Area Control Center (Manila ACC):

(https://web.archive.org/web/20120722040122/http://www.philskies.net/library/vatphil/territory.jpg)

again this is idealized coverage of only cooperative/transponder aircraft...

(more on these SSR sites in individual followup posts)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 09, 2017, 12:48:38 AM
most recent news article on status of ATC radars (emphasis mine):

http://www.rappler.com/business/157529-cns-atm-flight-management-caap (http://www.rappler.com/business/157529-cns-atm-flight-management-caap)

Quote
New world-class air traffic system ready by June – CAAP

By Rappler.com
Published Fri, Jan 6, 2017 1:00 PM

GROUND CONTROL. The project includes a central traffic control complex housed in the CAAP office in Manila, and 10 radar sites across the country. Photo courtesy of DOTr

MANILA, Philippines – The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP) is off to a flying start this year as it announced the arrival of a new world-class air traffic system in a few months.

The government agency announced on Friday, January 6, that the new Communications Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system will be operational by the end of June.

from what info I've found so far, I count the following radar sites (both PSR+SSR and solo-SSR):

Manila Airport  (2 sites)
Mactan-Cebu Airport (2 sites)
Davao Airport
Bacolod Airport
Laoag Airport
Clark Airport
Subic Airport (not sure if ASR-9 still operational, I know it was back in 2011 not sure now, so maybe exclude this one?)
Tagaytay site
Majic, Cebu site

so the above makes 8 locations (or 9 if we count Subic), but because both Manila and Mactan actually have two sites each, it totals 10 sites for all (or 11 if we count Subic)...

will post info on them in individual followup posts...

---

ones I'm not sure of yet (these were planned by CAAP but I haven't found info which has been implemented):

Kalibo Airport
Puerto Princesa Airport (might just be a planned ADS-B site?)
Zambaonga Airport
Quezon Palawan site
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 09, 2017, 05:50:24 PM
Manila Airport (NAIA) Radar

historical summary of manila radar center as published in CAAP website (emphasis mine):

http://ats.caap.gov.ph/index2/manilaapp_about.php (http://ats.caap.gov.ph/index2/manilaapp_about.php)

Quote
MANILA APPROACH CONTROL

1960. Manila Control Tower provides both approach and aerodrome control services, there was no Radar equipment at that time thus, conventional approach was used to provide separation for arrival and departure and to monitor other traffic.

1968. The USAF in Clark Air Force Base (Pampanga) lent C.A.A. MPN 13 mobile radar and trained selected ATCs in the use of radar for approach control service. The MPN 13 radar is an analog radar that gives only primary responses represented by small moving blips. These blips are the actual position of aircraft in flight.

1975. New facility building was built to house the new Italian made SELENIA radar and approach control service was separated from the old MIA control tower. ATCs were trained in the use of the new airport surveillance radar. The SELENIA ASR provides the controller a better way of identifying aircraft with the use of secondary blip (SSR) response aside from the primary.

1979. After using the SELENIA radar for four (4) years, the Japanese government gave us the TOSHIBA radar system (analog). Toshiba radar has similar features with that of Selenia radar. Both radar are selected on Mode A only, and no Mode C capability yet.

1982. An update TOSHIBA radar system was acquired, which introduces use of digital Alpha/Numeric system and mode C. The Alpha/Numeric TOSHIBA radar was digital and with capability to determine aircraft on mode C, the altitude response of an aircraft in-flight. The aircraft represented by blips. The data that the controller can read on the radar display are the following:
Aircraft call sign A/C ID
Aircraft speed reference to ground speed (knots)
Aircrafts altitude (feet)

2001. In view of the fast deterioration of the performance of Toshiba Radar system due to lack of spare parts and obsolescence, a new NEC Radar system was acquired from the Japanese Government as grant. Building construction and facility renovations started to house the NC Radar system. The new system has the following features among others:
Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)
Mono-pulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (MSSR) and
Terminal Radar Data Processing Sub-System (TRDPS), modern type of alpha/numeric radar.

2003. October of this year the new NEC radar system was officially commissioned for operation.

The operations and training facilities of Manila Radar is located at Radar St., Merville Access Road, Pasay City.

this radar center is located near the NAIA runway:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila3_zpsuhg2rvbg.jpg)

this site can be seen in google maps here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@14.507935,121.024154,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@14.507935,121.024154,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila_zpsoisd5p1p.jpg)

from the above info we can infer that the Toshiba and NEC radars were likely installed in the radomes pictured above...

---

as posted in an earlier post (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859 (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859)), back in 2010 five sets of STAR-2000 primary radars with co-mounted RSM-970-S secondary radars were ordered, one of these was installed in NAIA also near the runway and a little way off from the main radar center complex:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila4_zpskmapaeax.jpg)

(http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/business-mirror/uploads/2016/11/econ01-112916.jpg)

this newer Thales radar can be seen in google maps here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@14.504351,121.019606,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@14.504351,121.019606,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila2_zpsda85krlw.jpg)

installation of this Thales radar took place between July 2014 and August 2015, as can be seen by comparing the following two videos of landings at NAIA:

July 2014: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVN_qstcNJQ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVN_qstcNJQ)

August 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtzRPa6lT28 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtzRPa6lT28)

as this Thales installation at NAIA includes a STAR-2000 primary (PSR) radar, it does not depend on aircraft having a transponder/beacon and thus is capable of detecting and tracking unknown/opfor targets... range for this PSR would be either 60, 80, or 100 nm depending on the transmitter power configuration acquired as can be seen in the product catalog:

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf)

note that for civilian air traffic control (ATC) purposes, the co-mounted RSM-970-S secondary (SSR) radar gives this site a range of up to 256 nm on transponder/beacon equipped aircraft:

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 10, 2017, 12:59:51 AM
(additional pre-2010 Thales procurement order information)

in contrast to the primary (PSR) radar sites (in the previous post) which serve as airport approach radars, there are also 3 secondary (SSR) radar sites which serve as en-route control radars: the previously mentioned Tagaytay site, a Majic Cebu site, and the Laoag airport site:

Beautiful clarification Mr R  :). This thread is officially heads and shoulders better than the original Timawa airport radar thread.

It'll be interesting to see if the Majic facility corresponds to any of the facilities of the old US Air Base at Mactan.

====

Mactan airport's radars from the ground.

Interestingly, Google Maps obfuscated the building when viewed from the browser . . . but not when viewed from a mobile phone. These puppies are along General Aviation Road, so are public knowledge.

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/mactan.jpg)

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Mactan-Cebu+International+Airport+(CEB)/@10.3088062,123.9847898,3a,60y,357.7h,104.69t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sIcgW1_tWKPwmuGdVERfOAQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656!4m5!3m4!1s0x33a997613bbd25df:0x8bd061454b8432c1!8m2!3d10.3106556!4d123.9802214
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 10, 2017, 12:43:46 PM
^thanks for the pic @chief :D that's a much higher def pic than the one I saw, gives a lot more details to see when zoomed in...

the PSR+SSR combo on the left is the newer Thales STAR-2000 primary with top-mounted RSM-970-S secondary, while the one on the right is the older NEC NPG-560B primary with top-mounted NPG-905B secondary...

---

re. Majic Cebu: I honestly haven't found the exact location or any pics of the site, all I've found so far are references from CAAP (whether in news articles or bid announcements) to their SSR site at "Mt. Majic, Cebu"... there is an actual location Luay Majic, Cebu but I haven't found pics of the site so far... I'm hoping others would chime in on any info...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 10, 2017, 02:20:56 PM
(since the @chief already started on this one :D )

Mactan-Cebu Airport Radar

prior to the 2010 Thales order for PSR and SSR sets (posted here: http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859 (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859)), this airport had an existing primary+secondary setup as can be seen in this 2009 parts/service bid request for proposals (emphasis mine):

http://www.dgmarket.com/tenders/np-notice.do?noticeId=4754023 (http://www.dgmarket.com/tenders/np-notice.do?noticeId=4754023)

Quote
Replacement of Mactan PSR/SSR Antenna Rotary Joint at Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Request For Proposals

General Information
Country:     Philippines
City/Locality:     Metro Manila
Notice/Contract Number:     phl:1090224
Publication Date:     Dec 24, 2009
Deadline     Jan 20, 2010
Original Language:     English
Goods, Works and Services
Communications equipment 

Please see attached Approved budget: PHP 4,725,000.00 Original notice: http://www.philgeps.net/GEPS/Tender/PrintableBidNoticeAbstractUI.aspx?refid=1090224

an indication of the type of PSR+SSR installed can be seen in the following resume of a technician who worked at Mactan from 2009 to 2011 (emphasis mine):

https://people.bayt.com/dennis-rara/ (https://people.bayt.com/dennis-rara/)

Quote
Maintains the following Airport Surveillance Equipments:

1. NEC NPG-560B Airport Surveillance Radar

...

2. NEC NPG-905B Secondary Surveillance Radar

looking at the pic posted by @chiefA in the previous post (NEC radar is the one on the right), as well as the following pic (NEC radar is the one in the foreground):

(http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/125753202.jpg)

and comparing to the NEC website picture of it's current PSR and SSR products:

http://www.nec.com/en/global/solutions/cns-atm/surveillance/asr.html (http://www.nec.com/en/global/solutions/cns-atm/surveillance/asr.html)
http://www.nec.com/en/global/solutions/cns-atm/surveillance/ssr.html (http://www.nec.com/en/global/solutions/cns-atm/surveillance/ssr.html)

(http://www.nec.com/en/global/solutions/cns-atm/common/images/ssr_img02.jpg)

one can see the similarity in antenna and feed arm structure (ie. the vertical girders of the antenna frame, as well as the girder supporting the feed arm, both of which feature distinctive holes in the metal frame)... zooming in on the google map street view in the url provided by @chiefA in the previous post will also show the "NEC" label on the antenna face...

from the NEC product website, range for the current PSR product given at either 60 or 80 nm (depending on transmitter power and antenna gain configuration - see product details in NEC link above)... as this is a primary radar, this would be applicable to unknown/opfor targets...

while the range of the SSR for transponder/beacon-equipped aircraft is either 60, 100, or 250 nm, note that these ranges would not be applicable for unknown/opfor targets...

(note that these ranges are for the current NEC products whereas the one at Mactan is a slightly older product)

---

similar to the Manila airport, Mactan also received one of the newer Thales PSR+SSR combo sets ordered back in 2010 (as shown in an earlier post: http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859 (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859))... this newer PSR+SSR can be seen in the left of the pic posted by @chiefA in the previous post, as well as in the background in the pic above...

it can be seen that this newer Mactan PSR+SSR is indeed a STAR-2000 and RSM-970-S combo by comparison to the Thales product image (as also posted in an earlier post: http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859 (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859):

(note the distinctive slant to the feed horn support structure plates as well as the tubular shape of the feed support arms, also the method of mounting the SSR above the PSR with the solid rectangular support right beneath a V-shaped support with a prominent vertical bar in the center)

(http://www.atc-network.com/Upload/News/34754/Thales_STAR2000_RSM%20970%20S%20radars.jpg)

this Thales PSR+SSR set was installed sometime between May 2015 and June 2016 as can be seen by a comparison of the following videos of landings at Mactan airport:

May 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1wdBMZvNWQ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1wdBMZvNWQ)

June 2016: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wPUnP9lr7A (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wPUnP9lr7A)

---

the two radar sites at Mactan can be seen while landing from the runway (NEC on the left side of pic, Thales on the right):

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/mactan2_zpsrhj33pw8.jpg)

---

and can also be seen in google maps here (NEC on the right side of pic, Thales on the left):

https://www.google.com/maps/@10.309219,123.984816,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@10.309219,123.984816,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/mactan_zpspvpb8ymm.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 10, 2017, 03:00:22 PM
looking at the pic posted by @chiefA in the previous post (NEC radar is the one on the right), as well as the following pic (NEC radar is the one in the foreground):

Mr R,

What would be the point of having two radars in such close proximity? Is one actually inactive?
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 10, 2017, 03:23:44 PM
^@chief, in the youtube video link I posted for the June 2016 landing clip, it shows both radars in operation (ie. rotating)...

my guess would be:

1) NEC radar age - we know from the 2009 parts bid request that the NEC set was installed prior to that date so the NEC radar must be around at least 8 yrs old (and possibly even older)... as an aside: in a Clark airport related document on the Selex set in Clark the projected lifespan of that set was 15 years... so if the NEC radar is older than 8 years that may be one reason to put in the newer Thales set... similarly Manila's NEC (and Toshiba) radars are much older, hence the newer Thales set installed there as well...

2) the Thales radar was part of CAAP's CNS-ATM project which includes the Thales "TopSky" air traffic management (ATM) system, so perhaps to feed in PSR+SSR tracks from Mactan into TopSky was easier done using the Thales radar (as opposed to some one-off development work to try and get an 8+ year old NEC radar to feed into the TopSky ATM system)...

(I would have also thought "for backup purposes" was another reason, but seeing that vid clip with both radars operating/turning made me wonder about the "backup" reason)

---

(tongue in cheek) these are civilian ATC radars so I don't think multiple radars to complicate opfor ECM efforts (ie. more power required, greater frequency variation, etc.) was a concern ;D
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 11, 2017, 09:41:01 AM
(since the @chief already started on this one :D )

As a precaution I ran this thread by a number of current and ex-service Timawans / DefensePH-ers . . . and the response thus far has been fine. These are all open source items, and this awareness benefits education.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 11, 2017, 04:25:22 PM
^roger that @chief, everything posted is all open internet sources...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 11, 2017, 06:50:27 PM
Bacolod Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

prior to the 2010 Thales procurement order for PSR and SSR sets, Bacolod airport was not one of the 4 airports with an existing radar (as posted in an earlier post (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2861#msg2861))...

as part of the Thales procurement, 5 sets of standalone RSM-970-S secondary (SSR) radar were acquired:

(http://www.radartutorial.eu/19.kartei/14.ssr/pic/img3081.jpg)

as this is a secondary (SSR) radar, it's ~256 nm surveillance capability is dependent on aircraft having a transponder/beacon to reply to interrogation transmissions from the radar... thus it is not capable of detecting/tracking unknown or opfor targets...

---

one of these radars was then installed in Bacolod airport at a site near the runway, as can be seen here:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/bacolod2_zps0hhqdpfe.jpg)

in google maps the site can be seen here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@10.772924,123.011940,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@10.772924,123.011940,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/bacolod_zpsngfu9pd5.jpg)

this site installation was performed between Feb 2015 and Jun 2016 as can be seen by comparing the following airplane landing video clips:

Feb 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXma2cHYwsM (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXma2cHYwsM)

June 2016: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZ6cMKZyZGg (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZ6cMKZyZGg)

(edit: 01/15/17)

google street view image:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@10.7732961,123.0114672,3a,37.5y,127.62h,100.36t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s2A0jwzblYVa78FBr3jRntw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@10.7732961,123.0114672,3a,37.5y,127.62h,100.36t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s2A0jwzblYVa78FBr3jRntw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/bacolod3_zpsdel5ri9c.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 12, 2017, 03:05:29 PM
Davao Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

similar to Bacolod airport, the Davao site was not one of the existing four (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2861#msg2861) primary (PSR) radar equipped airports prior to the 2010 Thales procurement order (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859)...

part of this Thales procurement were 5 sets of standalone RSM-970-S secondary (SSR) radars which can track transponder/beacon-equipped aircraft up to a range of 256 nm, but can not be used to detect unknown/opfor targets:

(http://www.ctuc.com.cn/en/admin/tp/rsm970s.jpg)

one of these secondary radar sets was installed at Davao airport, but unlike the Bacolod installation, the Davao radar site was not situated directly beside the runway but was instead placed off to the side and slightly behind the airport and nearby structures... thus the radar site is best viewed from the air, as can be seen in the following image stills from aircraft takeoff video clips:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vquLskN17pM (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vquLskN17pM)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG_oGcfR6e8 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG_oGcfR6e8)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao1_zpsn23jv0id.jpg)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao2_zpsggfndoiq.jpg)

while in google maps this radar site can be seen here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@7.136842,125.649731,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@7.136842,125.649731,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao_zpsrm58t9pf.jpg)

(edit: 01/15/17)

google street view image:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao4_zpsqqkg4tpw.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on January 12, 2017, 07:40:38 PM
Hi R3m, check PM.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on January 12, 2017, 09:36:54 PM
part of this Thales procurement were 5 sets of standalone RSM-970-S secondary (SSR) radars which can track transponder/beacon-equipped aircraft up to a range of 256 nm, but can not be used detect unknown/opfor targets:

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/Global%20Surveillance%20Solution%20Booklet.pdf

interesting line here..

Contrary to the PSR, the SSR requires aircraft to be fitted with a transponder onboard. With its continually rotating
antenna, the SSR will send out an energy beam which will interrogate aircraft. When the energy beam hits an aircraft, a coded reply will be sent back to the radar. This reply contains the aircraft’s identification, its altitude and, depending on the type of
transponder on board, additional information.
However, the SSR does not rely on the transponder for the position of the aircraft. It determines this
itself by measuring the time it takes for the beam to be reflected back to the radar and the direction the reflection
comes back from.
The SSR then transmits all this information to the air traffic control system where it is
displayed as an aircraft label. Secondary radars transmit pulses on 1030 Mhz to trigger transponders installed in aircraft to respond on 1090 Mhz.
----
help me understand the highlighted part.
Radar can detect aircraft, if transponder is on.Complete data will be sent back.. if no transponder is on..the only data the radar will give is the position of the unknown aircraft by way of the beam bouncing back and forth?
TYIA
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 12, 2017, 09:52:46 PM
^hehe, replied to your PM on that point already @SG ;D

check out the line above that:

Quote
Contrary to the PSR, the SSR requires aircraft to be fitted with a transponder onboard.

the SSR doesn't use the transponder data to determine the aircraft position because the SSR is doing it by itself by timing the delay between when it transmitted the interrogation on 1090 MHz and when it received the reply on 1030 MHz... that time delay multiplied by the speed of light is used to calculate the distance to the aircraft (without needing to use the data from the transponder)...

similarly the bearing (angle) of the aircraft is determined directly by the SSR itself by noting where it's antenna was pointing when it received the 1090 MHz reply...

but like the quoted line form the doc says, "the SSR requires aircraft to be fitted with a transponder onboard", because without a transponder the SSR would not receive any 1090 MHz reply and without that reply it won't be able to compute the aircraft's distance and bearing...

note also in the page right before the one you qoute, in that page it is discussing the primary radar (PSR), where it says:

Quote
The undisputable advantage of the PSR is that it detects all aircraft in range regardless of aircraft on-board equipment. This is referred to as independent surveillance. This means that no aircraft can remain invisible to air traffic controllers. This is the only type of technology today to offer this level of safety and security.

so from the above two entries on PSR and SSR, you'll notice that it's only with a primary radar (PSR) that an aircraft without a transponder (eg. like an unknown or opfor target) can be detected...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on January 12, 2017, 10:04:44 PM
^hehe, replied to your PM on that point already @SG ;D

check out the line above that:

Quote
Contrary to the PSR, the SSR requires aircraft to be fitted with a transponder onboard.

the SSR doesn't use the transponder data to determine the aircraft position because the SSR is doing it by itself by timing the delay between when it transmitted the interrogation on 1090 MHz and when it received the reply on 1030 MHz... that time delay multiplied by the speed of light is used to calculate the distance to the aircraft (without needing to use the data from the transponder)...

similarly the bearing (angle) of the aircraft is determined directly by the SSR itself by noting where it's antenna was pointing when it received the 1090 MHz reply...

but like the quoted line form the doc says, "the SSR requires aircraft to be fitted with a transponder onboard", because without a transponder the SSR would not receive any 1090 MHz reply and without that reply it won't be able to compute the aircraft's distance and bearing...

note also in the page right before the one you qoute, in that page it is discussing the primary radar (PSR), where it says:

Quote
The undisputable advantage of the PSR is that it detects all aircraft in range regardless of aircraft on-board equipment. This is referred to as independent surveillance. This means that no aircraft can remain invisible to air traffic controllers. This is the only type of technology today to offer this level of safety and security.

so from the above two entries on PSR and SSR, you'll notice that it's only with a primary radar (PSR) that an aircraft without a transponder (eg. like an unknown or opfor target) can be detected...

yes thanks. it was just a matter of a minute.  ;D
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 13, 2017, 04:09:31 AM
help me understand the highlighted part.
Radar can detect aircraft, if transponder is on.Complete data will be sent back.. if no transponder is on..the only data the radar will give is the position of the unknown aircraft by way of the beam bouncing back and forth?
TYIA

In addition to Mr R's excellent summary, there's also an article about the history and differences between PSR and SSR on the first page:

http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg1721#msg1721
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 13, 2017, 07:39:29 PM
(continuing with internet open source information)

Laoag Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

this secondary (SSR) radar site was one of the 3 enroute radar sites which existed prior to the 2010 Thales procurement order, as was seen in an earlier post (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2861#msg2861) concerning these 3 long-range enroute radars (emphasis mine):

http://www.philstar.com/metro/505586/civil-aviation-authority-construct-manila-control-center (http://www.philstar.com/metro/505586/civil-aviation-authority-construct-manila-control-center)

Quote
Civil Aviation Authority to construct Manila control center
 Updated September 17, 2009
...
Ciron and the new radar console display would be able to receive signals from three long-range radars located in Laoag, Tagaytay and Cebu and process the inputs in Manila for a country-wide radar coverage of all incoming and outgoing flights within the Flight Information Region.

and as also can be seen in this CAAP bid request for proposals from 2009 (emphasis mine):

http://www.dgmarket.com/tenders/np-notice.do?noticeId=4072429 (http://www.dgmarket.com/tenders/np-notice.do?noticeId=4072429)

Quote
Replacement of Existing Manila Area Control Center (ACC) System
Request For Proposals
...
Publication Date:     Jun 26, 2009
...
8. Integration of existing SSRs in Laoag, Tagaytay and Mt. Majic, Cebu from AFC existing available protocol into the ATC automation system;

as for the brand and type of SSR installed here, the only reference I have seen so far comes from the skyscrapercity "philippine airlines & airports" sub-forum where a lot of civilian aviation enthusiasts and industry types appear to congregate (one can probably say that forum is to the civilian aviation industry what Timawa is to philippine defense topics)...

in that aviation-oriented forum, an old thread mentioned that the Laoag SSR (as well as the Majic Cebu SSR) were installed in the mid-1990s, were procured from Thomson-CSF (now Thales), and were an older model of the RSM series (ie. the same series which also includes the current RSM-970-S SSR models which were recently procured by CAAP as part of their 2010 Thales order)...

and as this is a secondary (SSR) radar, it relies on transponders/beacons in order to detect and track aircraft, and hence will not be able to detect unknown/opfor targets...

---

as for the site's location, the Laoag secondary (SSR) radar is situated slightly behind the airport terminal and is visible from the runway as can be seen here:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/laoag2_zpsxx6idxpc.jpg)

and as seen in the following rather dated (ie. 2-3 years old) video clips of landings/takeoffs at the airport:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HtxkiVXCDw (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HtxkiVXCDw)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uYm8cWLvh_8 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uYm8cWLvh_8)

the most recent video clip I found was of a Jan 2016 landing of a light private plane, where one can just makeout the SSR just as the plane touches down:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cHNrxRl9IM (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cHNrxRl9IM)

---

in google maps the Laoag radar site can be seen here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@18.182835,120.535268,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@18.182835,120.535268,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/laoag_zpsh1keiens.jpg)

and in google street view can be seen here (as viewed from a public road behind the airport):

https://www.google.com/maps/@18.1832389,120.5365572,3a,75y,260.73h,77.31t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sQLuoalH6VAHZDnDaFNJT0A!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com/maps/@18.1832389,120.5365572,3a,75y,260.73h,77.31t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sQLuoalH6VAHZDnDaFNJT0A!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/laoag3_zpsxbhxsjwv.jpg)

one will notice the contruction activity around the radar site, and this is actually part of the CAAP's CNS-ATM project (of which the 2010 Thales order is a part)... considering that the original SSR at this site is quite old, it's probably to be expected that a replacement for this site would be part of CAAP's overall project...

in fact in google street view one can see the following sign regarding this project:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/laoag4_zpsgxga9nv0.jpg)

and viewed from the above, the construction site beside the existing SSR site can be seen in google maps:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/laoag5_zpsoxd0czgd.jpg)

if one compares the form of the building being constructed (on the right side of image) with the ones at the Bacolod and Davao airport SSR sites, one can see the similarity:

Bacolod airport radar site:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/bacolod_zpsngfu9pd5.jpg)

Davao airport radar site:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao_zpsrm58t9pf.jpg)

and considering that the google images are dated from Feb 2016, the new site at Laoag airport may already be complete, though I have not yet been able to find new images or video clips of the new site... so if anyone has found any updated pictures or videos, pls. do post it in the thread...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 15, 2017, 12:53:11 PM
(additional google images for currently deployed secondary/SSR Thales RSM-970-S airport radars)

Bacolod Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

google street view:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@10.7732961,123.0114672,3a,37.5y,127.62h,100.36t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s2A0jwzblYVa78FBr3jRntw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@10.7732961,123.0114672,3a,37.5y,127.62h,100.36t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s2A0jwzblYVa78FBr3jRntw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/bacolod3_zpsdel5ri9c.jpg)

---

Davao Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

google street view:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao4_zpsqqkg4tpw.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 15, 2017, 03:02:31 PM

Davao Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

google street view:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao4_zpsqqkg4tpw.jpg)

Talking about commitment-to-cause Mr R. That image is only visible from a specific location.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 15, 2017, 04:02:19 PM
^hehe, yup @chief :D took a while to find that view in order to verify it was just an SSR in Davao...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on January 21, 2017, 09:48:02 AM
(https://scontent.fmnl5-1.fna.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/16114690_1116828805106134_6134999125891202104_n.jpg?oh=1373757fa8eec7f808227e1e590de867&oe=591804AE)
Kalibo PSR and SSR
Photo Credit Timawan Arcabe
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on January 21, 2017, 12:43:45 PM
(https://scontent.fmnl5-1.fna.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/16114690_1116828805106134_6134999125891202104_n.jpg?oh=1373757fa8eec7f808227e1e590de867&oe=591804AE)
Kalibo PSR and SSR
Photo Credit Timawan Arcabe

Nice one SG99n1. Regards to Arcabe. Has he rejoined the community yet?
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 21, 2017, 04:11:40 PM
^nice! really great looking pic @SG ;D

so that confirms that particular PSR+SSR site from the old 2011 CAAP plan... so we've seen 3 of the new Thales PSR+SSR sites, now where could the others be? ;D

say, is @arcabe the same "arcabe" over in the skyscrapercity aviation site?
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: SG99n1 on January 21, 2017, 04:50:55 PM
I dont know yet. But i know he is quite busy these days... and he is lurking in this forum.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: Mr. Pitz on January 23, 2017, 10:55:14 PM
There is this radar station that was recently installed here in Zamboanga City with new Radome, tower and the facilites therein. Must've wonder that maybe under one, two or all of them -CAAP/DND/Pagasa control since its proximity to the Zamboanga international airport and the Western Mindanao Command.

(https://scontent.fmnl3-2.fna.fbcdn.net/v/l/t31.0-8/fr/cp0/e15/q65/16299923_1262048123840730_6590071455180334902_o.jpg?efg=eyJpIjoidCJ9&_nc_eui2=v1%3AAeGkpQbtAa_uYUNM_pe-3MLlrvS8QjrBdivK-An5l1rHgKvA2Zm2x0-MCHFFmh4GJTGw9YMxASQ8hjxl0xUPbwI_RWxs0G1914Dm0XeUV0h7FjF5nP8iLF4-uEwGhITWnQ0&oh=a9158cb956d6df1d7b679b798c6bcb22&oe=5909A3DC)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: Mr. Pitz on January 23, 2017, 10:58:43 PM
There is this radar station that was recently installed here in Zamboanga City with new Radome, tower and the facilites therein. Must've wonder that maybe under CAAP/DND/Pagasa control since its proximity to the Zamboanga international airport and the Western Mindanao Command.

(https://scontent.fmnl3-2.fna.fbcdn.net/v/l/t31.0-8/fr/cp0/e15/q65/16299923_1262048123840730_6590071455180334902_o.jpg?efg=eyJpIjoidCJ9&_nc_eui2=v1%3AAeGkpQbtAa_uYUNM_pe-3MLlrvS8QjrBdivK-An5l1rHgKvA2Zm2x0-MCHFFmh4GJTGw9YMxASQ8hjxl0xUPbwI_RWxs0G1914Dm0XeUV0h7FjF5nP8iLF4-uEwGhITWnQ0&oh=a9158cb956d6df1d7b679b798c6bcb22&oe=5909A3DC)

Google Streetview: https://www.google.com/maps/@6.9232289,122.0321262,0a,75y,294.23h,88.9t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1smAN34s5ZftYo_pTj7eEVQg!2e0 Check out Labuan - Limpapa National Road Shared via the #StreetView app

Note: I took this photo on the way to the City in an important event that I attended.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on January 24, 2017, 01:13:27 PM
^nice pic @MrPitz :D

from your pic and the pics in google streetview from the link you gave, the style of the building matches the ones built by CAAP in Bacolod, Davao, and the Kalibo pic from @SG... the tower, with it's clipped-corner square platform (ie. like a squared-off octagon) and it's large boxlike pedestal, also matches the tower style used by CAAP in the Bacolod, Davao, Kalibo, and Mactan towers which support the new Thales radars...

it's too bad the Zamboaga google streetview pics dated from Feb 2016 show the tower without the radome but still missing the radar antenna, if it showed the antenna we could have determined if the Zamboanga site got a Thales PSR+SSR combo set or if it just got a standalone SSR...

maybe you might have seen the tower with the radar antenna before the radome was installed there in Zamboanga? if you did would you remember if it was a Thales PSR+SSR combo set (like the one visible in Mactan, or in the Kalibo pic from @SG posted above)?
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: aris_glock40 on February 13, 2017, 04:25:28 PM
BRINGING DOWN NUMBER OF FLIGHTS
CAAP to shut down Tagaytay air traffic radar for a week in March
http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/599328/money/companies/caap-to-shut-down-tagaytay-air-traffic-radar-for-a-week-in-march#sthash.mqmZGy8A.dpuf


Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: aris_glock40 on February 14, 2017, 02:11:13 PM
To sir REM! :)

PTV

BALITA: CAAP, may bagong teknolohiya para sa surveillance
News: Caap, new technologies for surveillance

https://www.facebook.com/PTVph/videos/1514576348603030/?autoplay_reason=gatekeeper&video_container_type=0&video_creator_product_type=0&app_id=107875702605270&live_video_guests=0
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on February 15, 2017, 04:46:32 PM
^nice find @Aris :D  they even showed some screen displays from CAAP's new Thales TopSky system...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on March 03, 2017, 08:19:17 AM
Clark Airport gears up for Tagaytay radar shutdown

http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?idn=&sid=&nid=&rid=968214

CLARK,  Pampanga, March 1 (PNA) -- Authorities of the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC) have ironed out contingency plans for the possible diversion of flights at the Clark International Airport (CRK) from March 6 to 11 due to the temporary shutdown of the Tagaytay radar for upgrading and maintenance.

CIAC president and CEO Alexander Cauguiran said the CRK is prepared in the event that some flights from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) will be diverted to CRK next week.

“Clark airport is ready should there be flight diversions and we are more than willing to help ease the discomfort of passengers affected by the diversion,” Cauguiran said, adding that CRK has ample aircraft parking slots, hotel accommodations, transportation services, and emergency and technical services.

Although two radars will remain operational during the maintenance of the Tagaytay radar, the latter’s temporary shutdown will result in a reduction of flights at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).

Hilarion Ritche Nacpil, CRK Terminal Operations manager, said the airport can accommodate at least 33 aircrafts during the day and 26 aircrafts at night.

The upgrading of the Tagaytay radar will include a new technology called the Communications, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM), a system that ensures safer and more efficient air traffic flow. (PNA)
FPV/ZST/MDDR
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on March 12, 2017, 01:24:46 PM
Tagaytay radar now fully operational -- CAAP

http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?idn=&sid=&nid=&rid=970930

MANILA, March 12 (PNA) -- The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP) lifted at 10:30 p.m. on Saturday the notice to airmen (NOTAM) on the temporary shut down of Tagaytay radar operations for maintenance and upgrade from March 6 to 11.

The radar is now back to normal operations. It may be recalled that the number of flights at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) was reduced from 40 to 32 flights per hour during the maintenance period.

CAAP Deputy Director General for Operations Manuel Antonio Tamayo assured the public that the country's aviation regulator is doing its best to provide safe, secure and convenient air travel for everybody.

Tamayo acknowledged the effort of aviation stakeholders, airline operators and the management of Manila International Airport and Clark International Airport, whose efforts contributed to the positive process of Tagaytay radar maintenance.

Tagaytay radar is one of the three radars being utilize by CAAP in guiding flights approaching airports at NAIA and Clark.

CAAP said the repair covered the overhauling of antenna and replacement of its drive motor and rotary joint.

"The repair is necessary as Tagaytay radar will be integrated with the satellite-based Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems the we will launch soon," explained CAAP.

CNS/ATM system enable aircraft operators to meet their planned departure and arrival schedules, and adhere to their preferred flight profiles with minimum constraints, without compromising agreed levels of safety.

The system also aims to improve the handling and transfer of information, extend surveillance and improve navigational accuracy that will lead increased airspace capacity and achieve reduced flight operating costs and delays.

The PHP9-billion Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) assisted CNS/ATM facility will be turned over by main contractor Sumitomo-Thales JV to CAAP management by July.

Once fully operational, CAAP said the facility can monitor 80 percent of the Manila Flight Information Region assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (PNA)
BNB/MCCA/RCG
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: mayk on April 18, 2017, 02:06:55 PM
Some relevant links from the interweb:

http://philippineairspace.blogspot.sg/search/label/CNS%2FATM

(https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-LlvLFNUDry4/WG-2one2lAI/AAAAAAAAA-o/np_iDnWVYMMM6Df1s8FQnABMwx6YiQ2cQCLcB/s1600/cns_atm_ph_mnl_1.jpg)

From this:

(https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JTquCRbwz_Q/UJB33dU9O0I/AAAAAAAAA7Y/f5zupl9ZtXkBQmzQJ60AnwsMIH3Jc-9EgCPcB/s1600/Manila%2BATC.JPG)

To this:

(https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-egKo7tx5NGs/WG-1E0ILLyI/AAAAAAAAA-U/U4JmxP7Pc5c-syxI7VV-DxC4CcZRQE3YwCLcB/s1600/cns_atm_ph_mnl_2.PNG)

(https://pbs.twimg.com/media/C4g_eKwVcAAHxm2.jpg)

(https://pbs.twimg.com/media/C4g_w28UkAEXgTJ.jpg)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: mayk on April 18, 2017, 03:47:03 PM
http://www.apec-tptwg.org.cn/new/Archives/GIT15/Other/PHL-New%20CNS_Proj.ppt

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/fosbtv948qq4jqs/Slide4.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/wc46letlx09j129/Slide9.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/xa0uq3m6gzt8s6h/Slide5.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/4g7job0q7raei9q/Slide6.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/cm6zutgyrqbhz07/Slide7.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/6ko1ce3qx8mq0n3/Slide8.PNG?raw=1)

(https://www.dropbox.com/s/cyb57c7ykhrwqjk/Slide10.PNG?raw=1)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: mayk on April 18, 2017, 03:59:28 PM
The 13.25 billion peso question (which probably can be answered by r3mu511) is: Is there interoperability between the CNS/ATM civ radars and the upcoming Israel made air defense radars given that the CNS/ATM upgrade is supposedly capable of regional flight information interoperability?
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on April 18, 2017, 09:24:27 PM
^sorry @mayk, I don't have any public source info on that... maybe other forumers better connected to CAAP can answer that question...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: mayk on April 18, 2017, 10:01:47 PM
^sorry @mayk, I don't have any public source info on that... maybe other forumers better connected to CAAP can answer that question...

I was not referring to the PH context, but in general is there interoperability between civil aviation CNS/ATM and military air defense radars? Mil planes do land and takeoff from civilian airports so they are sure to have civ interoperability.

And air defense controllers would have a better view of the airspace if they have access to the civ CNS/ATM.
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: r3mu511 on April 18, 2017, 11:15:49 PM
^ah ok, in that case, Thales does advertise that they can integrate their Topsky CNS/ATM into a military air defense system, so the potential is there...
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on September 22, 2017, 12:16:48 PM
Manila Airport (NAIA) Radar

historical summary of manila radar center as published in CAAP website (emphasis mine):

http://ats.caap.gov.ph/index2/manilaapp_about.php (http://ats.caap.gov.ph/index2/manilaapp_about.php)



this radar center is located near the NAIA runway:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila3_zpsuhg2rvbg.jpg)

this site can be seen in google maps here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@14.507935,121.024154,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@14.507935,121.024154,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila_zpsoisd5p1p.jpg)

from the above info we can infer that the Toshiba and NEC radars were likely installed in the radomes pictured above...

---

as posted in an earlier post (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859 (http://defenseph.net/drp/index.php?topic=712.msg2859#msg2859)), back in 2010 five sets of STAR-2000 primary radars with co-mounted RSM-970-S secondary radars were ordered, one of these was installed in NAIA also near the runway and a little way off from the main radar center complex:

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila4_zpskmapaeax.jpg)

(http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/business-mirror/uploads/2016/11/econ01-112916.jpg)

this newer Thales radar can be seen in google maps here:

https://www.google.com/maps/@14.504351,121.019606,400m/data=!3m1!1e3 (https://www.google.com/maps/@14.504351,121.019606,400m/data=!3m1!1e3)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/manila2_zpsda85krlw.jpg)

installation of this Thales radar took place between July 2014 and August 2015, as can be seen by comparing the following two videos of landings at NAIA:

July 2014: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVN_qstcNJQ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVN_qstcNJQ)

August 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtzRPa6lT28 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtzRPa6lT28)

as this Thales installation at NAIA includes a STAR-2000 primary (PSR) radar, it does not depend on aircraft having a transponder/beacon and thus is capable of detecting and tracking unknown/opfor targets... range for this PSR would be either 60, 80, or 100 nm depending on the transmitter power configuration acquired as can be seen in the product catalog:

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/star2000_datasheet.pdf)

note that for civilian air traffic control (ATC) purposes, the co-mounted RSM-970-S secondary (SSR) radar gives this site a range of up to 256 nm on transponder/beacon equipped aircraft:

https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf (https://www.thalesgroup.com/sites/default/files/asset/document/rsm970s_datasheet_0.pdf)

At NAIA this week

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/mla-radar.png)

New and old are visible below.

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/mla.png)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on September 22, 2017, 12:26:53 PM
Davao Airport Radar: Secondary (SSR)

google street view:

https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 (https://www.google.com.ph/maps/@7.138289,125.6487542,3a,15y,146.53h,90.96t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suDmu0UGpz83FopXz3dxupw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656)

(http://i1341.photobucket.com/albums/o746/r3mu511/davao4_zpsqqkg4tpw.jpg)

Earlier this week

(http://defenseph.net/bootcamp/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/DVO.png)
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on October 07, 2017, 05:47:25 AM
New world-class air traffic system ready by June – CAAP
The new Communications Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management will enable airlines to meet departure and arrival schedules, and provide a safer, more efficient air traffic management flow in the country

Rappler.com
Published 1:00 PM, January 06, 2017
Updated 1:04 PM, January 06, 2017

https://www.rappler.com/business/157529-cns-atm-flight-management-caap

< Edited >

The government agency announced on Friday, January 6, that the new Communications Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system will be operational by the end of June.

The state-of-the-art computer and satellite-based system will put the Philippines on the same level with developed countries. The system features aircraft transponders that receive satellite signals and use transponder transmissions to determine the precise locations of aircraft in the sky, CAAP said in a statement.

The project was partly funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). It includes the establishment of a central traffic control complex housed in the CAAP office in Manila, and 10 radar sites covering the entire Philippine Flight Information Region. It is now 92% complete, according to CAAP.

< Edited >

Once the project is completed, the country would be able to monitor 80% of the Manila Flight Information Region as assigned to the Philippines by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Due to this, CAAP said it would need the services of 500 air traffic controllers (ATC) over the next 5 years.

The long-delayed project was approved during the term of then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo but was not implemented. In May 2011, the Commission on Audit (COA) suspended the advance payment of P58.92 million for the new CNS/ATM Systems Development Project Package-I.

< Edited >
Title: Re: Primary and Secondary Search Radars @ PH airports
Post by: adroth on December 26, 2017, 03:21:32 AM
How the current air traffic control modernization program came about

===

Sumitomo Corporation wins contract to deliver next-generation air traffic control systems to the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communication

http://www.sumitomocorp.co.jp/english/news/detail/id=25929

Sumitomo Corporation (President and CEO: Susumu Kato; Head Office: Chuo-ku, Tokyo) has formed a consortium with Thales Australia Ltd. (CEO: Chris Jenkins; Head Office: Melbourne; hereafter "Thales"), the Australian subsidiary of leading French electric company Thales SA, and has won a contract to deliver next-generation air traffic control systems--along with the associated construction--for the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communication (hereafter "DOTC").

The introduction of the next-generation air traffic control systems has been divided into the following two packages and will be implemented in a phased manner. The contract our consortium won relates to Package 1. The contract is worth about 9 billion yen, and the work is to be completed within 30 months; by May 2013. Using this opportunity, Sumitomo Corporation will aim to also win the contract for Package 2.

Package 1: Construction of a new air traffic control center building within the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in the Philippines, and delivery of air traffic control systems (including systems for communications, aeronautical information processing, satellite signal monitoring, and weather) at the new air traffic control center and major airports in the Philippines (about 25 sites).
Package 2: Installation of radars at major airports in the Philippines (about 10 sites), and delivery of communications equipment to connect the air traffic control center introduced in Package 1 with major local airports

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has recommended a shift from traditional air traffic control systems, dependant on voice and radars, to a new system mainly based on digital data that uses geolocation satellites including GPS satellites. In the meantime, the Philippines has been faced with the issue of aging air traffic control systems despite being in an extremely important position connecting Japan, China and South Korea with the ASEAN nations. In the late 1990s, the Philippine Government decided to introduce a next-generation air traffic control system. The Japanese Government also considered this an ODA issue. In 2002, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) concluded a contract to provide yen loans amounting to approximately 22.0 billion yen to the DOTC. The completion of a safe and advanced air traffic control system with the support of the Japanese Government, preparing for the forecast increase in demand for air travel, will have great significance in terms of safety and efficiency not only for the Philippines, but also for nations around the world, including Japan.

At present, demand for air traffic is increasing worldwide, and a further jump in demand is expected due to the rise of emerging nations and increasing populations. According to the Japan Aircraft Development Corporation, the current volume of air traffic is expected to double in the period between 2020 and 2025. Japan is no exception. To respond to this increasing demand, Japan has been working on increasing departure and arrival slots at the Narita Airport and just recently has completed the fourth runway at Tokyo's central Haneda Airport. This will increase the frequency of annual departures and arrivals to 300,000 to 400,000.

Partner Thales is the world's number one in Europe and Asia in delivery of air traffic control systems. In fact, about half the airplanes flying worldwide are controlled by Thales' air traffic control system. With this project, Sumitomo Corporation will actively enter the field of air traffic control systems development, partnering Thales and contributing to airline safety and efficiency across Asia.