Author Topic: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’  (Read 4701 times)

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64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« on: January 27, 2017, 07:05:07 AM »
64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’

http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?idn=&sid=&nid=&rid=958387

MANILA, Jan 26 (PNA) -- A total of 64 big-ticket projects ranging from major road networks, railway systems and bus rapid transit systems to airport and seaport modernization are either for implementation or in the pipeline as part of the Duterte administration's envisioned "golden age of infrastructure."

Another 15 ongoing projects are being implemented by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) that are either locally funded, with Official Development Assistance (ODA), or through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects.

These ongoing projects include the Mandaluyong Main Drainage Project (Phase II); Central Luzon Link Expressway, Phase I, Tarlac-Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija; Integrated Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Measures in the Low Lying Areas of Pampanga Bay; Tarlac-Pangasinan-La Union Expressway (Binalonan-Rosario Section), Flood Risk Management Project (FRIMP) in Cagayan de Oro River and the Sen. Gil Puyat Ave.-Paseo De Roxas / Makati Ave. Vehicle Underpass Project.

The 64 projects for implementation or in the pipeline are broken down as follows: 20 involving road construction and improvements; two involving bridge construction and reinforcements; four flood control projects; two dams; one road transport IT infrastructure project; 23 involving rail systems; seven airport development projects; two transport terminals; and three bus rapid transit systems.

Besides its current projects, the DPWH is also set to either oversee or implement 10 infra projects in Metro Manila and Mindanao.

These are the: Bonifacio Global City-Ortigas Center Link Road Project; UP-Miriam-Ateneo Viaduct along C-5/ Katipunan; Metro Manila Priority Bridges Seismic Improvement Project (Guadalupe Bridge and Lambingan Bridge; Widening/Improvement of Gen. Luis St.-Kaybiga-Polo-Novaliches; Cavite-Laguna Expressway; NLEX-SLEX Connector Road; Metro Manila Interchange Construction Project VI; Davao City By-Pass Construction Project (South Section (Road) and Center Section (Tunnel); Panguil Bay Bridge, and Phase 1 of the Metro Manila Flood Management Project.

According to DPWH Secretary Mark Villar, all these projects will significantly boost growth and raise productivity and competitiveness.

The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) projects the national government to raise the infrastructure budget from PHP552 billion to PHP1.470 trillion by 2022, or from 3.5 to 5.7 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

In the same period, the total infrastructure budget--both national and local--is projected to grow from PHP861 billion in 2017 to PHP1.832 trillion by 2022, or from 5.4 to 7.1 percent of GDP.

“The significant increase in the infrastructure budget will be used to fund ongoing and proposed major infrastructure projects, which are vital for sustaining high and inclusive growth,” Villar said.

The Department of Transportation (DOTr), on the other hand, has awarded 6 PPP projects and is either bidding out or about to bid out 10 PPP projects, according to DOTr Secretary Arthur Tugade:

The awarded PPP projects are the Integrated Transport System (ITS) Project: South Terminal; Integrated Transport System (ITS) Project: Southwest Terminal; LRT Line 1 Cavite Extension and Operations and Maintenance; Contactless Automatic Fare Collection System; Mactan Cebu International Airport Project; and MRT Line 7.

PPP projects that are either undergoing or about to undergo bidding are the Development, Operations and Maintenance of Bacolod-Silay, Davao, Iloilo, Laguindingan and New Bohol (Panglao) Airports; LRT Line 2 Operations and Maintenance; Road Transport Information Technology Infrastructure (Phase II); LRT Line 6; Philippine National Railways - South Line (previously, the North-South Railway Project - South Line); and NAIA Development.

The DOTr, through a combination of ODA and PPP, is implementing and developing a total of 23 rail projects which will greatly expand the country’s rail system from the current 77 kilometers to over 1,750 Km.

The 10 ongoing rail projects include the following: PNR North (Manila-Malolos), PNR South Commuter PPP Project (Manila-Los Banos), PNR South Long Haul PPP Project (Los Banos-Legaspi,Matnog,Batangas Port), Line 1 Cavite Extension PPP Project (Baclaran-Niog), Automated Fare Collection System PPP Project (Beep Card), Line 2 O&M PPP Project, Line 2 East Extension (Santolan-Masinag), Line 2 West Extension (Recto-Pier 4), Line 6 PPP Project (Niog-Dasmarinas), Line 7 PPP Project (San Jose Del Monte-North EDSA).

Another 13 rail projects are being developed by DOTr.

These include the following: Mindanao Railway (Circumferential), Cebu Railway (5 lines), Panay Railway, Line 4 (Taytay-Manila) PPP Project, Line 5 (Pasay-Makati-Taguig) PPP Project, Line 8 (Quezon City-Manila) PPP Project, PNR North Phase 2 (Malolos-Clark), Mega Manila Subway Project, Subic-Clark Railway.

Aside from extensive rail development, the DOTr is also implementing at least three Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, establishing 77 km of segregated busways and improving pedestrian and bikeway facilities.

These include the Cebu BRT, the Quezon Avenue BRT, and the Central Corridor (EDSA) BRT. Several other BRT systems and corridors are also currently being studied by DOTr.

Alongside these projects, there are 12 other DPWH projects in the pipeline.

These include the Panay-Guimaras-Negros Link Project; EDSA-Taft Flyover; Central Luzon Link Expressway, Phase II, Cabanatuan-San Jose, Nueva Ecija; Flood Protection Works in the Marikina River including Retarding Basin; and the Dalton Pass East Alignment Alternative Road Project.

Another six big-ticket projects funded through PPPs are also either being proposed by the DPWH or already in the pipeline.

These include the R-7 Expressway, Manila Bay Integrated Flood Control, Coastal Defense and Expressway, and the Laguna Lakeshore Expressway Dike.

DBM Secretary Benjamin Diokno said the incremental revenues that would be raised from the first package of the Department of Finance (DOF)-proposed Comprehensive Tax Reform Program (CTRP) amounting to some P163 billion in 2018 is consistent with the planned increase in the budget deficit from 2.7 percent of GDP in 2016 to 3 percent of GDP beginning 2017.

The first package of the CTRP was submitted by the DOF to the Congress last Sept. 26.

Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez III said the DOF welcomes the recent statement of Rep. Dakila Carlo Cua, who chairs the House ways and means committee tackling tax reform, that the first package would be approved by his panel in January this year.

In the medium-term, Dominguez said tax reform is expected to help reduce the poverty rate from 21.6 percent in 2015 to 14 percent in 2022, lifting some six million Filipinos out of poverty, and helping the country achieve upper middle income country status, with the per capita gross national income increasing from USD3,550 in 2015 to at least USD4,100 by 2022, which is where China and Thailand are today.

If this momentum is sustained, the country would be well on its way to becoming a high-income economy by 2040 with a per capita gross national income of a least $ 12,000, or where Malaysia and Korea are right now, he added.

Package One of the CTRP seeks to lower personal income tax rates, broaden the Value Added Tax (VAT) base, and increase the excise taxes on oil products and automobiles.

The lowering of personal income tax rates, a promise that President Duterte made during the 2016 poll campaign, will increase the take-home pay of workers and make our tax rates more competitive, Dominguez said.

A broader VAT base will level the playing field and reduce massive leakages, while higher excise taxes on oil products and automobiles will improve the progressivity of the tax system as richer households consume far more of these products, he said.

“Meanwhile, to protect the poor and vulnerable sectors, highly targeted transfers and subsidies will be provided as part of the ramp up of social spending from 37.3 percent of the 2016 budget to 40.1 percent of the 2017 budget,” Dominguez said.

According to a report quoting BMI Research, sustaining the country’s high growth path is dependent on the Duterte administration’s ability to roll out big-ticket infrastructure projects.

Also, the Oxford Business Group has cited a November report of ratings agency Standard & Poor's that said the Philippines was a top performer in Southeast Asia in 2016 partly because of an expansionary fiscal policy that emphasizes public infrastructure.

Other institutions have also said the Philippines can sustain its high growth of above 6 percent--and thus its status as one of Asia’s fastest growing economies--provided that the Duterte administration delivers on its commitment to accelerate spending on infrastructure.

These private and multilateral institutions include the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Fitch Ratings, S&P Global Ratings, Nomura, First Metro Investment Corp. (FMIC), Colliers International, Nordic Business Council of the Philippines (NBCP), Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI), Employers’ Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP), Goldman Sachs, Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), Standard Chartered Bank, Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp. (HSBC), Sun Life Asset Management Co., AB Capital Securities, Lamudi PHL and the Management Association of the Philippines. (PNA)
JMC/PR-JAG/EDS
« Last Edit: February 24, 2018, 02:50:10 PM by adroth »

adroth

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #1 on: May 07, 2017, 05:05:39 AM »
First Infrastructure Congress & Expo Philippines strongly supported by #BuildBuildBuild infrastructure team
May 03, 2017
 
http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/2131493743171/first-infrastructure-congress-expo-philippines-strongly-supported-by-buildbuildbuild-infrastructure-team

PASAY CITY, May 3 -- With the recent launch of the #BuildBuildBuild portal during the Dutertenomics Forum, the forthcoming Infrastructure Congress and Expo Philippines (ICEP) 2017 will expound more on the government’s nation-building projects.

To be held beginning today (May 3) until May 5, 2017 at the World Trade Center Manila, ICEP 2017 will highlight #BuildBuildBuild during the Congress through its proponents: Department of Transportation, Department of Public Works and Highways, National Economic and Development Authority, Bases Conversion and Development Authority, Department of Budget and Management, and Department of Finance, discussing their respective agency’s infrastructure agenda with an almost P9-trillion budget for the next five years.

The #BuildBuildBuild Infrastructure Team supports the priority projects of the national government, with emphasis on new and better (green) cities, urban mass transport, railways, seaports and airports, and bridges and roads. This agenda of connectivity, inclusive growth, and massive infrastructure spending will propel the Philippines into its Golden Age of Infrastructure.

With the strong support of the Department of National Defense, the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, the Congress will also discuss the role of the military in our country’s flagship projects.

Representatives from different branches of government and the private sector are expected to attend the Congress that presents an impressive line-up of speakers, to enable a dialogue between national and local governments.

Suppliers, contractors, and service providers will be showcasing their products and services and offer supply solutions in the international exhibition area, which is free to the public.

Organized by a global leader in event management, PEPTarsus Corp., ICEP 2017 aims to be a catalyst in having a cohesive agenda toward nation building.

For more information, please log on to www.infrastructurephilippines.com or email us at info@peptarsus.com.

 - See more at: http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/2131493743171/first-infrastructure-congress-expo-philippines-strongly-supported-by-buildbuildbuild-infrastructure-team#sthash.rMRVp28R.dpuf

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #2 on: May 07, 2017, 05:09:22 AM »
'Golden age of infrastructure' to make PHL competitive in ASEAN – PCCI
4/28/2017

https://www.msn.com/en-ph/finance/topstories/golden-age-of-infrastructure-to-make-phl-competitive-in-asean-e2-80-93-pcci/ar-BBAtkYB

The Philippines is poised to become more competitive in Southeast Asia via the Duterte administration's ambitious infrastructure spending as it brings about massive investment, the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI) said Friday.
 
< Edited >

During the six-year term of President Rodrigo Duterte, the government plans to spend P8.2 trillion on massive infrastructure projects that will spur economic activity in the country.

"Before, people are not so gung-ho about investing, we have the lowest FDI among the ASEAN countries. But with the effort put in by this administration on power, roads, ports and airport I feel confident that we can be a key player among the ASEAN countries," Barcelon noted.

The PCCI chief also talked about how the Philippines can take advantage of the ASEAN roll-on/roll-off connectivity, which will be launched by President Duterte and Indonesian President Joko Widodo on April 30.

< Edited >

The Davao-Gen. Santos, Bitung route, the maiden voyage of the ASEAN Ro-Ro connectivity, is expected to be a more efficient alternative to the Manila-Bitung route, which takes three to five weeks of shipping time. Shipping via the new route will only take about a day and a half of sailing. — VDS, GMA News

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #3 on: May 19, 2017, 03:28:12 PM »
President Duterte vows to meet PHP3T infrastructure development target
By Lilian C. Mellejor May 18, 2017

http://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/989036

TAGUM CITY, May 18 -- President Rodrigo Duterte vowed Thursday to meet his administration's target to spend PHP3 trillion for infrastructure projects in five years to further accelerate the country's economic growth. .

He made the commitment during the inauguration of the PHP757 million Governor Miranda Bridge II along Daang Maharlika crossing Libuganon River in Tagum City, Davao del Norte.

The President led the bridge's inauguration despite heavy rains Thursday afternoon.

Duterte noted that government spending on infrastructure could spur economic activities and create jobs for the people.

"Ang kwarta motuyok lang sa mga tao (Money will revolve among the people)," he said, emphasizing the need to avoid corruption in carrying out the projects.

While the construction of the bridge did not start during his presidency, Duterte said it is important to continue the good policies of the previous administration.

The expansion of the bridge started in 2015 and completed last April 21. The bridge, measuring 650 meters long, was constructed to serve as an alternate bridge to the old Miranda Steel Bridge built in 1956.

The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) constructed the bridge because the number of users of the old bridge has increased tremendously due to the economic and tourism boom in Davao del Norte and the neighboring provinces of Davao Oriental and Compostela Valley.

The new bridge was constructed with a higher elevation, designed to protect commuters from the dangers of flooding in the area.

The bridge will also provide inter-regional linkage without hampering the flow of traffic even during flooding occurrences in low-lying areas.

"I hope this will serve you for another 50 to 70 years," Duterte said.
(PNA)

adroth

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #4 on: November 23, 2017, 02:14:11 PM »
From: http://ptvnews.ph/lis-visit-boosts-china-ph-bilateral-ties/

< Edited >

China and the Philippines have agreed to enhance cooperation in defense and law enforcement, particularly the anti-terrorism campaign and drug-related crimes.

In the field of trade and business, both sides have agreed to implement the Six-Year Development Program for Trade and Economic Cooperation (2017-2022), and jointly formulate and implement a program on the China-Philippines Industrial Park Development.

Both sides also agreed to the potential of the Belt and Road Initiative as a grand platform for policy coordination, connectivity of facilities, unimpeded trade, financial integration and strengthened people-to-people ties.

The implementation of the first batch of major projects, such as the New Centennial Water Source-Kaliwa Dam Project, Chico River Pump Irrigation Project, Philippine National Railways South Long Haul Project, and Binondo-Intramuros and Estrella-Pantaleon bridges will be hastened in accordance with the related exchange of letters and agreements signed during Li’s visit.

Both countries have agreed to identify the second batch of priority cooperation projects, vowing to be transparent and laws compliant to assure smooth implementation of the projects.

< Edited >

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #5 on: February 21, 2018, 01:37:24 PM »
Duterte gov't tops GDP allocation for infra
By Juzel Danganan  February 20, 2018, 8:45 pm

http://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1025894

MANILA -- The Philippine government under President Rodrigo Duterte has allocated a bigger portion of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for infrastructure spending, compared with the average of the past six administrations in the last 50 years.

"We are pouring in 5.4 percent in comparison to just 2.6 percent of the average of the past six administrations in the last 50 years," said Build, Build, Build team chairperson Anna Mae You Lamentillo during the National Information Convention (NIC) in Davao City on Monday.

Lamentillo said the administration would spend PHP8.4 trillion in infrastructure in its six-year term, and this would be financed 80 percent by local borrowings.

In his 10-point socioeconomic agenda, Duterte aims to reduce Philippine poverty from 21.6 percent in 2015 to 13-15 percent by 2022.

Lamentilla said financing the speedy establishment of infrastructure and development of industries that would ease up the people's lives and boost economic growth is one of the big changes the government is making.

Among the life-changing infrastructure projects the administration hopes to make real is the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3, which is aimed at decongesting EDSA traffic, especially on rush hours.

The Build, Build, Build Portal lists down high impact projects envisioned to raise the economy's productive capacity by creating jobs, increasing incomes, and strengthen the investment climate leading to sustained inclusive growth.

"It is a real-time tool where projects are monitored and tracked, with relevant information made available to everyone," Lamentillo said of the Build, Build, Build portal, where private contractors could see government projects they might be interested in joining.

Other infrastructure projects underway are the Tarlac-Pangasinan-La Union Expressway Project, which will decongest the McArthur Highway; the Central Luzon Link Expressway Phase 1, which will connect Tarlac to Cabanatuan; the Central Luzon Link Expressway Phase 2, which will connect San Jose to Nueva Ecjia; the Plaridel Bypass Road Project Phase 1, which will accommodate travelers heading to Balagtas, Guiguinto, Plaridel, Bustos, and San Rafael, Bulacan; the North Luzon East Expressway, which will allow a scenic view of North East Luzon;

The North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) Harbor Link Segment 10, which will allow for faster travel through Radial Road 10, Mindanao Ave., and Commonwealth Ave.; the NLEX and South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) link, which will reduce travel time from Clark to Calamba; the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) Expressway Phase 2, which will provide access to NAIA Terminal 1, 2 and 3 including Skyway and Cavitex; the

Runway Manila, which will allow easy access to Manila's top hotels; the Southeast Metro Manila C6 Phase, which will connect Skyway Stage 1 at FTI to C5 towards Laguna de Bay; the Cavite-Laguna Expressway, which will connect CAVITEX and the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) Mamplasan Interchange;

The Quezon-Bicol Expressway, which allows safer travel instead of using winding roads; Camarines Sur Expressway, which will serve as an alternative route to Naga City and Pili; and the SLEX Toll Road 4, which will allow easy access to Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, and the Bicol Region.

Department of Budget and Management Secretary Benjamin Diokno earlier said infrastructure spending would rise from 5.3 percent of GDP in 2017 to 7.4 percent of GDP in 2022.

Department of Labor and Employment Secretary Silvestre Bello III also said earlier the Build, Build, Build program would generate more than 12 million jobs over the next five years.

Bello pointed out most of the new jobs will be in the field of manufacturing and construction, including carpenters, welders, plumbers, and electricians.

The Build, Build, Build campaign also includes projects, such as the Mega Manila Subway, Mindanao Railway, and the Bases Conversion and Development Authority Smart City Solutions.

The program targets to address challenges in employment, traffic, and inflation.

The projects are targeted to be completed from 2017-2022. (PNA)


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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #6 on: July 16, 2018, 12:13:20 PM »
16 inter-island bridges in PH being studied
Published July 6, 2018, 6:34 PM

By Betheena Kae Unite

https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/07/06/16-inter-island-bridges-in-ph-being-studied/

A series of inter-island bridge projects that aim to connect Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao through long-span bridges are being mulled, Public Works and Highways Chief Mark Villar bared Friday.

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Secretary Mark Villar ( Juan Carlo de Vela / MANILA BULLETIN FILE PHOTO)

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Secretary Mark Villar
( Juan Carlo de Vela / MANILA BULLETIN FILE PHOTO)

A total of 16 short and long-span bridges starting from Bataan in Luzon to Tawi-Tawi in Mindanao are being studied under the Build Build Build program, Villar said as he spoke at the Pre-SONA 2018 Forum held in Pasay City.

The proposed bridges include Bataan-Cavite Interlink Bridge (28 kilometers), Mindoro-Batangas Super Bridge (15 kilometers), Camarines-Catanduanes Friendship Bridge (10.7 kilometers), Luzon (Sorsogon)-Samar Link Bridge (18.2 kilometers), Panay-Guimaras-Negros Link Bridge (19.2 kilometers), 4th Mandaue-Mactan Bridge (0.42 kilometer), Cebu-Bohol Link Bridge (24.5 kilometers), Bohol-Leyte Link Bridge (22 kilometers), Leyte-Surigao Link Bridge (23 kilometers), Negros-Cebu Link Bridge (5.5 kilometers), Panguil Bay Bridge (3.77 kilometers), Guicam Bridge (0.44 kilometer), Davao-Samal Bridge (4.4 kilometers), and three Tawi-tawi Bridges spanning a total of 0.78 kilometer.

< Edited >

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #7 on: August 11, 2018, 11:16:23 AM »
Hits and misses of Duterte’s infrastructure push
The National Economic and Development Authority has identified 75 flagship projects under the government’s Build, Build Build program. Only 7 have started construction in 2018.

Ralf Rivas
Published 8:00 AM, July 19, 2018
Updated 9:03 PM, July 22, 2018

https://www.rappler.com/business/207561-hits-misses-duterte-build-build-program

< Edited >

Can the Philippines afford it?

Depite project delays, University of Asia and the Pacific senior economist Bernardo Villegas lauded the government's spending spree.

He said the Duterte administration is "light-years" ahead compared to the past governments in terms of implementation of an infrastructure program.

But can the Philippines really afford them all?

During the deliberations on the first package of the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion (Train) Law, senators estimated that around 80% of the funds for the BBB would come from loans. Less than 20% would come from revenues generated under the Train Law.

So where will most of this cash come from? China.

Duterte said he needs China “more than anybody else at this time" for the infrastructure push.

However, critics repeatedly warned that loans sought from Beijing could saddle the country with heavy debts. Loans from China generally have heftier interests of around 2% to 3%, as compared to Japan with only 0.75%.

< Edited >

Pernia assured the public that the government is “extra careful” in dealing with China.

< Edited >


=====






« Last Edit: August 11, 2018, 11:18:38 AM by adroth »

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Re: 64 major projects underway in 'golden age of infrastructure’
« Reply #8 on: September 06, 2018, 01:31:42 PM »
‘Build, Build, Build’ boon to Davao region’s growth: NEDA-11
By Lilian Mellejor  August 31, 2018, 6:23 pm

http://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1046601

DAVAO CITY – The National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)-11 is bullish the Davao region’s economy would flourish further in the coming years with the Build, Build, Build Program under President Rodrigo Duterte's administration.

During Friday's Kapihan sa PIA, NEDA-Director Ma. Lourdes Lim said NEDA expects a higher Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) from 2017’s 10.9 percent as Build, Build, Build kicks in and create more jobs in the Davao Region.

Lim said the infrastructure spending will transform the economy leading to lower prices of commodities, as transportation facilities become more efficient, including road networks.

She noted that of the 75 flagship projects for the country, 17 are in Mindanao.

Of the 17, four are in Davao region – the Davao Airport Development Operations Maintenance project, the Mindanao Railway project (Tagum-Davao-Digos segment), Davao City Expressway project, and the Asbang Small Reservoir Irrigation Project.

Lim said the Davao Region has been allocated PHP6.65 billion for projects under the Department of Transportation, PHP56 billion for projects under the Department of Public Works and Highways, and PHP370 million under the Department of Energy.

Based on the 2017 Philippine Institute for Development Studies and the 2018 National Budget, Lim said infrastructure spending in the second year of the Duterte administration resulted in 6.3 GDP. In the first year of the Duterte administration, infrastructure spending resulted in 5.4 GDP.

The GDP in the first two years of the Duterte administration was higher compared to the 2.9 GDP of the six years of the administration of President Benigno Aquino III.

Lim said that from 5.4 percent GDP in 2017, the government aims to achieve about 7.3 percent GDP by 2022. (Lilian C. Mellejor/PNA)