Author Topic: How not to argue: Fallacies  (Read 6525 times)

adroth

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How not to argue: Fallacies
« on: September 25, 2016, 04:05:39 PM »
fal·la·cy
ˈfaləsē/Submit
noun
plural noun: fallacies

a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument.
"the notion that the camera never lies is a fallacy"

synonyms:   misconception, misbelief, delusion, mistaken impression, error, misapprehension, misinterpretation, misconstruction, mistake; untruth, inconsistency, myth
"the fallacy that the sun moves round the earth"

LOGIC

a failure in reasoning that renders an argument invalid.

faulty reasoning; misleading or unsound argument.
"the potential for fallacy which lies behind the notion of self-esteem"


References and examples

http://www.iep.utm.edu/fallacy/

http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/fallacy3211.htm


hughdotoh

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Re: How not to argue: Fallacies
« Reply #1 on: November 14, 2016, 07:22:31 PM »
Might well be a good idea to post a list of the extremely dubious sites to keep track of fallacies in the internet.

Sinagtala

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Re: How not to argue: Fallacies
« Reply #2 on: November 21, 2016, 02:22:09 AM »
Some fallacies listed on Chapter 15: Fallacies of Logic and Correct Thinking: Theories and Practice by Mayol et. al (2013)

Argumentum Ad Populum (Appealing to the People/ The Appeal to Emotion)

This fallacy is committed when an arguer attempts to arouse and use the emotions (rather than present reasoned and relevant evidence) of a group to accept a claim as being true. This fallacy is committed when someone manipulates people's emotions in order to get them to accept a claim as being true.

Argumentum Ad Hominem (Attack Against the Man)

Literally, argumentum ad hominem means "argument directed against the man." It has three varied ways: [1] Abusive ad hominem; [ii] circumstantial; and [iii] tu quoque.

Abusive ad hominem - comitted whenever a person attempts to persuade an audience about the validity of a claim by resorting to a mere personal attack rathern than adducing (citing, quoting)evidence to support his claim.

Circumstantial - committed whwnever an arguer attacks not the person per se (itself), but some circumstances of a person such as religion, nationality, or membership to a political party.

Tu Quoque - a type of hominem that attempts to discredit a person's claim by charging the person with hypocrisy or for doing what they are arguing against.

Argumentum Ad Baculum (Appeal to Force)

When one employs threat, physical or psychological pressure, and intimidation to cause the acceptance of a claim instead of reason. The arguer issues threats instead of giving proof; intimidates instead of giving reason.

Ignorantio Elenchi (Missing the Point)

Occurs when one presents an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question.

Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam

In this fallacy, someone argues that a claim is true since it has not been proven false.

Argumentum Ad Verecundiam

This is committed when we appeal to the authority of some prominent persons to support our contention, even though that person may have no expertise in the given area. It assumes that whatever highly esteemed person in authority says must be true.

"I know that I know nothing." - Socrates