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Topics - Ayoshi

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KDDX-class Guided Missile Destroyer is a Korean Mini Aegis ship. The Aegis destroyer ship costs about 1.2 trillion won. Adding the armed cost and the operation cost, the amount is much higher. For the Navy, the performance of an Aegis destroyer is needed, but it is inevitable that KDDX, which is lower in cost and operating expenses, is needed. Moreover, Korea has enough capacity to build KDDX now that it has localized both the fleet, naval base, and ship-to-air missiles and vertical launchers.

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The KDDX-class destroyer (KDX-IV) is a stealthy destroyer class under development by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering for the Republic of Korea Navy, to be launched after 2025. The maneuvering fleet would consist of three maneuverable fronts consists of three Aegis destroyers (7600t class) and KDDX (mini-Aegis ship) (6000t class), which were built in the early 2020s.

The KDDX, which will be built in the mid-2020s, is armed with anti-aircraft missiles and land-attack missiles. The KDDX is larger than the KDX-II, which is currently being operated, but it is smaller than the 7600t Aegis destroyer (KDX-III), which is the main power of the naval maneuvering unit.

KDDX Destroyer model on DSME stand at Indo Defence 2014. Photo from

Dynetics to build and increase power of U.S. Army laser weapons | Army Recognition - 08 May 2020 12:00
Marking the official transition to the Indirect Fires Protection Capability – High Energy Laser (IFPC-HEL) endeavor, in January, the U.S. Army modified the existing contract to support on-going efforts to increase laser capability.

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As the prime contractor for IFPC-HEL, Dynetics is set to demonstrate a 300 kW-class prototype system in FY22. The company will lead the final assembly, integration, and testing. The solution will provide continued support to defend against hostile unmanned aerial systems and rockets, artillery, and mortars. The IFPC-HEL prototype will inform the U.S. Army’s effort to field prototype units with residual combat capability by 2024. “This contract modification proves Dynetics’ agility and responsiveness to warfighter needs,” said Scott Stanfield, Dynetics director of strategic programs. “Scaling these proven technologies puts us on track to demonstrate and deliver the 300 kW-class prototype system and support the delivery of this revolutionary capability to our men and women of the operational Army by 2024.”

Dynetics is set to demonstrate a 300 kW-class prototype system in FY22 (Picture source: Dynetics)

Elbit Systems introduces a UAS-based long-range maritime rescue capability | Air Recognition
Adverse weather conditions and short endurance significantly degrade the SaR capabilities of manned aircraft, often preventing them from executing their missions. Capable of more than 24 hours of continuous flight, the Hermes 900 Maritime Patrol can operate in adverse weather conditions in both day and night. Equipped with the new SaR capability the UAS can increase the number of SaR missions that can be safely executed and improve the safety and effectiveness of maritime SaR response.

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The Hermes 900 Maritime Patrol can carry up to four, six-person life-rafts that are integrated on its wings. Using an onboard maritime radar the UAS detects survivor situations. Upon detection the UAS’ Electro-Optic/Infra-Red (EO/IR) payload is deployed to provide visual identification, and a rapid calculation of the drop-point is performed, enabling the UAS to dispatch life rafts from a low-altitude of 600ft to a pin-pointed location at a safe distance from the survivors. A gradual inflation process of the life-rafts is initiated after dispatch and is completed upon landing.

South Korea has test-fired its new local-made ballistic missile Hyunmoo-4 | Army Recognition - 08 May 2020 7:37
The Hyunmoo is a family of ballistic missiles fully designed and developed by South Korea that was actually deployed. The first variant, the Hyunmoo-1 was test launch in 1986 with a payload of 480 kg and at a range of 180 km.

The Hyunmoo-2A was the first of South Korea's attempts to develop a newer indigenous ballistic missile with an increased range, over Hyunmoo-1. This version can reach a target at a maximum range of 300 km. The upgraded version of Hyunmoo-2B, named Hyunmoo-2C, was unveiled in 2017. The ballistic missile has an increased range of 800 km

In 2006, the South Korean defense ministry released a statement that it had been testing several cruise missiles under the series of Hyunmoo-3 which were similar to the American Tomahawk. The first official model, Hyunmoo-3B, was unveiled in 2009 with a maximum range of 1,000 km

According to South Korean information, the new Hyunmoo IV ballistic missile is fitted with a new 1,000-kilogram (2,200-pound) warhead capable of destroying North Korea’s underground military facilities, command centers, and its leadership and is probably a variant of the extended-range Hyunmoo-2C missile. The new Hyunmoo IV has a maximum firing range of 800 km.

Hyunmoo-2 ballistic missile is fired during a military exercise at an undisclosed location in South Korea. (Picture source South Korean Defense Ministry)


Russia Signs Contract To Build World’s Largest Nuclear-Powered Icebreaker

Rosatom press release

On April 23, Rosatom subsidiary FSUE Atomflot and shipbuilder Zvezda LLC remotely signed a contract on the construction of the nuclear icebreaker Leader (project 10510); the parties were respectively located in Murmansk and Vladivostok.

The document was signed by FSUE Atomflot general director Mustafa Kashka and Zvezda LLC general director Sergey Tseluyko. Zvezda shipbuilding complex is the sole contractor for this Rosatom-commissioned project. As per the terms of the contract, the vessel is expected to be commissioned in 2027.

Nuclear icebreaker project 10510. Rosatom picture.

See also: Russian Arktika class (Project 22220) Nuclear-Powered Icebreaker


U.S. Navy & Royal Navy Conduct Anti-Submarine Exercise In The Arctic

US 6th Fleet press released

Four U.S. Navy ships and a Royal Navy ship entered the Barents Sea, working together to conduct maritime security operations in the challenging environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle, May 4, 2020.

Three Arleigh Burke-class Aegis destroyers USS Donald Cook (DDG 75), USS Porter (DDG 78), USS Roosevelt (DDG 80) are supported by fast combat support ship USNS Supply (T-AOE 6), and joined by the Royal Navy’s HMS Kent (F 78) to assert freedom of navigation and demonstrate seamless integration among allies.

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U.S. Navy surface ships have not operated in the Barents since the mid-1980’s. Allied and partner navies must remain proficient in all operating environments to ensure the continued security and access to the seas. This is especially critical in the Arctic, where the austere weather environment demands constant vigilance and practice.

Submarines and ASW / Hunt Class Mine Counter Measures (MCM) vessels
« on: May 07, 2020, 02:52:47 PM »

Eliminating hidden danger

The small but extremely effective Mine Counter Measure Vessels (MCMVs) boast glass-reinforced plastic hulls to conceal their presence from the threat of sea-mines. Their sonars are capable of detecting and classifying an object the size of a football up to 1,000 metres. These ships clear the way of mines to allow safe passage for larger forces, swiftly detecting and destroying any hidden dangers.

Photo from


Japan’s ATLA Developing Hypersonic Anti-Ship Missile

Development work of this new missile began in 2019 and is set to be completed in the 2030s. ATLA is currently in the development phase of the scramjet engine along with local company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries which won a contract for the prototype engine research.

The missile aims to be powered by a Dual-Mode Scramjet engine (DMSJ), a combination of ramjet and scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines, to fly at a wide range of speeds, including hypersonic speeds of Mach 5 or higher.

This ATLA research aims to realize a scram-jet engine that enables hypersonic cruise of a missile using jet fuel, and to develop advanced component technologies for long-time operation of the scram-jet engine. ATLA image translated by Naval News.


The South Korean Agency for Defense Development publicly revealed development of this 150 kilometer-range ship-to-ship cruise missile in November 1998. The Sea Star (Haesung) is a long-range cruise missile, similar to the Harpoon missile. The antecedents of this weapon are unknown although it is described as being in the Harpoon class.

C-Star / Haeseong is a ship-launched anti-ship cruise missile system that attacks enemy ships from outside the range of enemy attacks. Deployed on 4500 ton-class and above Korean destroyers, Haeseong is recognized to be superior to the US-made Harpoon missile, which is currently being deployed by the Korean forces, as it can travel on or above the surface of the sea. It is currently deployed on KDX II, a Korean destroyer eXperimental-2.

The ADD set aside W100 billion (US$100 million) was poured into development of the state-of-the-art ship-to-ship Haesung cruise missile between 1996 and 2003 to replace U.S.-made Harpoon missiles. The USD98 million program began in 1996, with LG Innotek (later Nex1 Future and now LIG Nex1) as its industrial partner. The country will spend 270 billion won ($285 million) on the project.The total program was claimed to be worth USD650 million, but this may understate the total cost.

Submarines and ASW / Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS)
« on: May 07, 2020, 10:46:53 AM »
Analysis: MH-60S naval helicopter with Airborne Laser Mine Detection System to detect mine threats in the sea | Navy Recognition - 05 May 2020 19:36

An MH-60S Sea Hawk, attached to the Dragon Whales of Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 28 has demonstrated its ability to perform detection of sea mine threats equipped with its Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS), over the Chesapeake Bay, April 29, 2020.

The MH-60S Sea Hawk is designed to perform Anti-Surface Warfare, combat support, humanitarian disaster relief, Combat Search and Rescue, aero medical evacuation, SPECWAR and organic Airborne Mine Countermeasures.

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The ALMDS system features several capabilities that make it the first of its kind. It leverages a sensor pod to rapidly sweep the water using laser technology. The sensor pod can also be rapidly installed on a medium-lift helicopter and quickly removed after mission completion. This agile system’s detection speed and accuracy will significantly improve the U.S. Navy’s mine detection capabilities and help ensure the safety of service members around the world.

The ALMDS pod is mechanically attached to the MH-60S with a standard Bomb Rack Unit 14 (BRU-14) mount and electrically via a primary and auxiliary umbilical cable to the operator console. Data is stored on a mass memory unit for post mission analysis. The operator's consol is common to all MH-60S AMCM systems.

ALMDS is capable of day or night operations without stopping to stream out or recover equipment and without towing any equipment in the water. With unteathered operations, it can attain high area search rates. This design uses the forward motion of the aircraft to generate image data negating the requirement for complex scanning mechanisms and ensuring high system reliability. ALMDS also provides accurate target geo-location to support follow on neutralization of the detected mines.

United States of America / MK 41 Missile Launch System
« on: May 07, 2020, 10:41:32 AM »
Lockheed to Supply MK 41 Missile Launch System Parts Under $148M Navy Modification | Navy Recognition - 28 April 2020 13:05
The Mk 41 Vertical Launching System / VLS is a modular, below deck, canister missile launching system that was originally designed for the Navy’s Aegis-equipped guided missile cruisers to provide air threat protection for naval battle groups. The Mk 41 VLS is a multi-missile, multi-mission launcher, capable of launching SM-2, SM-3, SM-6, ESSM, Tomahawk, and Vertical Launch ASROC missiles.

MK 41 is built to store and launch ballistic and long-range strike weapons such as the Tomahawk missile, the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile system and the Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket.

Mark 41 Mod 0 Vertical Launching System on USS Chosin (CG-65) (Picture source: Hpeterswald/Wikipedia)

See also: Next Generation Combat Vehicle: Abrams & Bradley replacement


General Dynamics Griffin III tracked armored candidate to replace Bradley IFV of US Army OMFV program | Army Recognition - 06 May 2020 08:36

In June 2018, in part due to congressional concerns, the U.S. Army announced a new modernization strategy and designated the Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) as the program to replace the M-2 Bradley. In October 2018, Army leadership decided to redesignate the NGCV as the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV) and to add additional vehicle programs to what would be called the NGCV Program.

On March 29, 2019, the U.S. Army issued a Request for Proposal (RFP)45 to industry for the OMFV. The Army has characterized its requirements as “aggressive” and noted industry might not be able to meet all requirements. Major requirements included the ability to transport two OMFVs in a C17 aircraft which will likely require the vehicle to have the ability to accommodate add-on armor; a threshold (minimum) requirement for a 30 mm cannon and a second generation forward looking infra-red radar (FLIR); and objective (desired) requirements for a 50 mm cannon and a third generation FLIR. By October 1, 2019, the industry was required to submit prototype vehicles to the Army for consideration and in the second quarter of FY2020 (Fiscal Year 2020), the Army planned to select two vendors to build 14 prototypes for further evaluation

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Despite numerous upgrades over its lifetime, the M-2 Bradley has what some consider a notable limitation. Although the M-2 Bradley can accommodate seven fully equipped infantry soldiers, infantry squads consist of nine soldiers. As a result, “each mechanized [ABCT] infantry platoon has to divide three squads between four Bradleys, meaning that all the members of a squad are not able to ride in the same vehicle.” 10 This limitation raises both command and control and employment challenges for Bradley-mounted infantry squads and platoons

Because the OMFV would be an important weapon system in the Army’s Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Congress may be concerned with how the OMFV would impact the effectiveness of ground forces over the full spectrum of military operations. Moreover, Congress might also be concerned with how much more capable the OMFV is projected to be over the M-2 Bradley to ensure that it is not just a costly marginal improvement over the current system. A number of past unsuccessful Army acquisition programs have served to heighten congressional oversight of Army programs, and the OMFV may be subject to a high degree of congressional interest.

On April 22, 2020, General Dynamics showed its Griffin III demonstrator, a candidate for the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV) Program of the U.S. Army. (Picture source Twitter account @nicholadrummond)

Three vendors showcased prospective platforms in the fall of 2018 including Griffin III from General Dynamics Land Systems, CV90 from BAE Systems and KF41 from Rheinmetall. (Picture source Army Recognition)

General Discussion / Boeing discussing AH-6i sale to Philippines
« on: May 07, 2020, 07:04:27 AM »

Boeing discussing AH-6i sale to Philippines
05 May 2020

While the PAF has a twin-engined attack helicopter requirement for which both the Apache and the Bell AH-1Z Viper were approved for sale on 30 April, the army is looking for a single-engined light attack helicopter. The service does not currently field a helicopter type, but any AH-6 procurement would likely replace 12 ageing MD 500MGs now flown by the PAF. The MD 500 is also a 'Little Bird' derivate of the same Hughes OH-6 Cayuse (Hughes Model 369 in its civilian version) that spawned the AH-6.

While both the AH-64E and AH-6i would make highly capable stand-alone solutions for both the air force and army respectively, Jamison noted the synergies between the two platforms. The AH-6i is equipped with the same avionics and human-machine interface (HMI) as the larger AH-64E. The AH-6i and the AH-64E share 83% of their mission software, so much that Boeing has previously stated that "when the AH-6i wakes up, it thinks it's a baby Apache". Having two such closely aligned airframes would provide benefits for support, training, and operations.


See also:
* Boeing Light Attack/Recon helicopter
* U.S Approves Possible Attack Helicopter Sale to PHL
* Keeping the MD-520 in the air

Boeing feels its Little Bird would be a good fit for Australia's special forces helicopter requirement. Source: IHS Markit/Gareth Jennings

China / PLA combined arms battalions
« on: May 06, 2020, 08:47:01 PM »

Combined arms battalions are now the basic unit of PLA mobile operations
23 March 2020

The announcement seemingly marks the end of a process initiated in 2008 that envisaged the formation of combined arms battalions, which include air-defence, engineering, and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) reconnaissance assets, to increase the PLA's readiness levels and its ability to project force within its sphere of interest.

The report states that these battalions are "modular" and designed to integrate different elements of the PLA as required, pointing out that the battalions can be combined to enhance combat effectiveness in a "plug-and-fight" fashion.

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